Mineral and Energy Resources

Minerals are homogenous, naturally occurring substances with specific physical and chemical properties. Rocks are complex combination of minerals in varying proportions. They are classified as igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks. The process of extracting valuable minerals or other geological materials from the inside of the earth is known as ‘mining’. Minerals are primarily classified as metallic, non-metallic and fuel minerals or energy resources. The minerals which contain iron like iron ore, manganese, etc., are known as ferrous minerals. Non-ferrous minerals like copper, bauxite, lead, zinc, gold, silver, etc., are those which do not contain iron. Coal, petroleum, etc., are classified as fuel minerals or energy resources.

Minerals are generally concentrated in three broad belts in India. These are: The North-Eastern Plateau Region The South-Western Plateau Region The North-Western Region Resources that are continuously replenished by natural processes are known as non-conventional energy resources. For example: Solar energy Wind energy Tidal and wave energy Geothermal energy Bio-energy Many minerals producing areas lead to air and water pollution in the surrounding region, which in turn leads to various health hazards. Therefore, judicious use of limited energy resources is a must do. Steps of conservation: Reuse Reduce Recycle

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