Manufacturing is a process, which involves transforming the raw materials into finished goods of higher value for sale in the local or distant markets.
Characteristics of modern large scale manufacturing are— specialization of skills or methods of production, mechanization, technological innovation, organizational structure and stratification and, uneven geographic distribution.
Factors which influence the industrial locations are:
Access to market
Access to raw material
Access to transportation and communication technology
Access to sources of energy
Access to labour supply
Government policy and
Access to the agglomeration economies
Industries can be classified on the basis of:
On the basis of capital investment, number of workers and volume of production industries are classified as cottage or household industries, small scale industries and large scale industries.
On the basis of the raw materials used, the industries are classified as agro-based, mineral based, chemical based industries, forest based industries, and animal based industries.
On the basis of ownership, industries are classified as Public industries, private sector industries, and joint sector industries.
High-tech industries which are regionally concentrated, self-sustained and highly specialised are called technopolies. The Silicon Valley near San Francisco and Silicon Forest near Seattle are examples of technopolies. High technology is the latest generation of manufacturing industries which manufactures products of an advanced scientific and engineering character. Manufacturing industries are important, as they contribute significantly to the economy of the world.