Transport and Communication (Part-B)

The availability of a high quality, sustainable transport system and telecommunications network is essential for economic developments and improvement to the quality of people’s lives. There are mainly three major means of transportation used by us, which are land transport, water transport and air transport.

Land transport is further sub-divided into roads, railways and pipelines. India has one of the largest road networks in the world. First serious attempt to build roads in India was made in 1943 with the “Nagpur Plan”. Indian Railway network facilitates the movement of freight and passengers, and contributes greatly to the economic growth of India. Water transport is further sub-divided into inland waterways and oceanic waterways. It is the cheapest means of transport and carries both passengers and cargo traffic. It is also very fuel efficient and eco-friendly, and is suitable for carrying heavy and bulky materials. The air transport in India is managed by two corporations, Air India and Indian Airlines after nationalisation. Pawan Hans is a helicopter service operating in the hilly areas. It is widely used by tourists in the North-east. It also provides helicopter services to the petroleum sector. Oil and Gas Pipelines are the most convenient and efficient modes to transport liquids and gases.

Means of communication can broadly be sub-divided into personal communication and mass communication. Letters, mobile phone, telegram, fax, email, etc., are classified as the means of personal communication. Radio, television, newspapers, cinema, magazines, public meetings, etc., are classified as the means of mass communication.

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