Environment and Natural Resources
A variety of environmental problems affect the global world. Land Degradation, Climate Change, Ozone Depletion, Biodiversity Loss and Ocean Exhaustion are issues that no single government can address fully. If various governments take steps to check environmental degradation then it can be addressed successfully.
Global Commons means resources belonging to no one and thus who so ever has an access to them can use. It also applies to international spaces and resources.
The principle of common but differentiated responsibilities is related to an environmental approach of north and south countries. Common responsibility describes the shared obligations of States towards the protection of environment.
Common Property Resources are natural resources owned and managed collectively by a community or society rather than by individuals.
India signed and ratified the 1997 Kyoto Protocol in August 2002 but was of the view that the major responsibility of curbing emission rests with the developed countries.
The environmental movement is a diverse scientific, social, and political movement for addressing environmental issues. The various environmental movements include forest, mining and anti mega-dams movements.
The resource geopolitical dimension deals with: - Who gets what, when and how? Strategic minerals (oil) are a major element of resource geopolitics.
The question of indigenous people rights brings the issues of environment, resources and politics together. In India ‘Indigenous people’ are known as "Scheduled Tribes (Aadivasis)”. They constitute nearly eight percent of the population.
Climate Change is attributed directly or indirectly to human activity, alters the composition of the global atmosphere. Greenhouse Gas is in the atmosphere that reduces the loss of heat into space. Global Warming used to describe an increase in the near surface temperature of the Earth. Kyoto Protocol is an international agreement between 192 countries to work toward reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Ozone depletion refers to the reduction of the protective layer of ozone in the upper atmosphere by chemical pollution. ‘Sustainable development’ is the development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.