Era of one Party Dominance
Challenge of building Democracy- The leaders of the newly independent India decided to take the difficult path of democracy as our freedom struggle was deeply committed to the idea of democracy. After drafting Constitution, the next important task was to hold the general elections. The Election Commission of India was set up in January 1950 with Sukumar Sen as Chief Election Commissioner. The elections were postponed twice and finally conducted between October 1951 and February 1952. The completion of campaigning, polling and counting took six months time.
The first three general elections were marked by the dominance of the Congress. Nature of Congress dominance was different from the one party rule of China, Cuba and Syria as it happened under democratic conditions. In India, many political parties contested elections but still Congress managed to win.
Emergence of opposition parties in India played a crucial role in maintaining the democratic nature of the system. Their criticisms ensured that balance of power was maintained within Congress. Socialist party was formed during the period in which national movement was taking place within the Congress in 1934. In 1948, the separate Socialist Party was formed. Socialist Party believed in democratic ideology.
Communist Party of India has socialist and pro-Russia ideology. The pro-Soviet Union Faction was the Communist Party of India (CPI) and Marxist Communist Party of India, CPI (M) was the opponent. The Bhartiya Jana Sangha was formed in 1951. Jana Sangha emphasised on one country, one culture and one nation theory. Bhartiya Janta Party has its root in Bhartiya Jana Sangha. C. Rajagopalachari formed the Swatantra Party in August 1959. It was formed after the Nagpur resolution of the Congress that called for land ceilings, state controlled food grain trading and cooperative farming.
Ballot is a sheet of paper or a card used to cast or register a vote. In Cooperative Farming farmers pool their resources in certain areas of activity.