Recent Developments in Indian Politics
Five major developments took place in Indian Politics. The defeat of Congress in 1989 elections led to the end of ‘Congress System’ and emergence of ‘Coalition Era’. There is initiation of economic reforms and globalization of Indian economy. There is implementation of ‘Mandal Commission’ recommendations and its affect on Indian Politics. The demolitions of Babri Masjid in December 1992 throw the country into fire of communalism. Last major development was assassination of Rajiv Gandhi in May 1991.
Elections in 1989 had seen the defeat of Congress, which was the majority party in 1984 elections. In 1990s, the ‘Congress System’ was replaced with the emergence of alliance politics. 1990s witnessed the emergence of political parties, which supported the interests of Dalits and other backward classes. The National Front with the support of Janta Dal, DMK and other regional parties formed the government under V.P. Singh. The Communist parties and the BJP supported the front with a motto of non-Congress government. In 1996, United Front of the same parties formed the government but with the support of Congress and the Left. The Other Backward Classes (OBCs) emerged as a political force during the 1990s. The National Front government decided to implement the recommendations of Mandal Commission. One of the important developments of this period was the emergence of politics based on religious identity, leading to a debate about secularism and democracy.
In December 1992, the temple supporters organized Karseva to build the Ram temple. On 6 December 1992, Babri Masjid was demolished which led to the clashes between Hindus and Muslims. An incident of burning a bogey of Karsevaks led to large-scale communal violence in Gujarat in February-March 2002. The doubt of Muslims involvement caused large scale violence against the community.
During the 1990s, India had seen growing consensus among political parties and masses on several issues. The consensus arose in the matters of new economic policies. All the governments since 1991 pursued the liberalization policies.