The Cold War Era

Cuban Missile Crisis arose in 1962 between U.S. and USSR over the Soviet’s attempt to deploy missiles in Cuba. The United States responded with a blockade of the island. Later, Soviets withdraw the weapons. Hostile relationship, reflected in arms race and competition for global influence, between Soviet bloc and U.S. The war was considered "cold" because the aggression was ideological, economic and diplomatic rather than a direct military conflict. The world was divided into two ideological alliances- Western (Capitalism) and Eastern (Socialism). The need was to maintain checks and balance of power. Newly independent countries entered into power camps. An arena refers to areas where crisis and war occurs, or threatened to occur between the super powers like Korea, Vietnam, Congo and Berlin. It led to military build-ups and diplomatic communications were strained. As the world was divided into two power blocs, the third world countries faced challenge to remain neutral. Non Aligned Movement (NAM) offered the solution to these newly decolonized countries, for not joining any of the blocs. India though stayed away from cold war but actively participated in the world politics. India opposed the decolonized countries to become part of cold war. Arms control is an umbrella term for restrictions upon the development, production, stockpiling, proliferation, and usage of weapons, especially weapons of mass destruction. Some important Arms Control Treaties concluded are Limited Test Ban Treaty, Non-Proliferation Treaty, Strategic Arms Limitation Talks and CTBT. The New International Economic Order was a proposal which came during 1970’s by developing countries through the UNCTAD to promote their interests by improving their terms of trade, increasing development assistance, developed-country tariff reductions and other means. Keywords- Arms Race, Anti-ballistic missiles (ABMs), Blockade, Bay of Pigs, Communism, Deterrence theory, Iron Curtain, Marshall Plan, NATO, Truman Doctrine, Warsaw Pact

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