US Hegemony in world Politics
Iraq invaded Kuwait in 1990. The America led the UN coalition with 34 countries and defeated Iraq in the First Gulf War. US hegemony began in 1991 after the disintegration of Soviet Union. After the Gulf War, Bill Clinton became the President of the US in 1992. His Government focused on “soft issues”. He launched “Operation Infinite Reach” against terrorist attacks. The 11 September 2001 event resulted in a “war on terror” which finally led to the support for George Bush. The USA launched “Operation Enduring Freedom” against Al Qaeda and Taliban (Afghanistan). USA’s invasion of Iraq in 2003 was a part of “Operation Iraqi Freedom”. The purpose of the invasion was to prevent Iraq from developing weapons of mass destruction. Weapons of Mass Destruction are capable of high order of destruction. It can be high explosives or nuclear, biological, chemical and radiological weapons.
Power of hegemony is primarily through coercion and consent rather than armed force. Hard Power relates to the relations, patterns and balances of military capability between states. US used his Structural Power to maintain the global structure, a pivotal role in providing global public goods such as sea-lanes of communications (SLOC), the Internet, etc. It accounts for 15 % of the world trade. Soft Power is the capacity to “manufacture consent”. The dominant powers use the ideological resources to shape the behavior of competing and lesser powerful ones. The tool of consent is more effective than coercion. The first constraint on US hegemony is the institutional build up of the American State. The second restriction is the American political culture. The third restriction is USA’s relation with NATO.
US is India’s largest trading partner. The US absorbs about 65 per cent of India’s total software exports. Three lakh Indians work in Silicon Valley of US. India-US relations are too complex to be managed by single strategy. Bandwagon and hide are the two strategies through which one can overcome the hegemonic power. In case of former, it is advisable to extract benefits by operating within the hegemonic system. Whereas hide strategy implies staying away from dominating power. Pacifism It is a commitment to peace and opposition to war.