Concession and Contrast
Concession is used to suggest an idea which is contrary to what people would expect in the normal circumstances. A concessive clause begins with "although" or "even though" and expresses an idea that suggests the opposite of the main part of the sentence.
Words or phrases commonly used in English to indicate concession are "however," "nevertheless," "despite," "in spite of," "even so," and "although.”
Different ways of expressing concession and contrast: In English, concession can be expressed through
Subordinating conjunctions- Adverb clauses of concession introduced by subordinating conjunctions such as although, though, even though etc.
Other words or expressions- Other words or expressions that can be used to express concession or contrast include notwithstanding, as, however, whatever, all the same, even if while, whereas and at the same time etc.
The use of conjunctions:
1. Although, though, even though, while, whereas, whilst, etc. can be used to show contrast or concession.
2. Although, though even though, while or whereas are subordinators used in contrast clauses.
3. Though and although can be used with the same meaning - ‘in spite of the fact that’, ‘even if’ and similar ideas. ‘Though’ is more commonly used.
4. ‘Even’ is not used as a conjunction, but we can use ‘even if’ and ‘even though’ to connect two clauses.
5. While can mean ‘although’ and hence we can use it to express concession and contrast.
Concessive clauses are also called contrast clauses. When we want to make two points, and emphasize that one of them contrasts with the other, there are number of different words and expressions that we can use.
Some of the subordinating conjunctions can be confidently used in contrast clauses on a regular basis:
E.g. although, even though, though, while, and whereas.
Although can be used either at the beginning of a sentence, or between the two clauses that you wish to contrast.
However and nevertheless emphasize the fact that the second thing that you are saying contrasts with the first.