A noun is a part of speech that denotes a person, animal, place, thing or idea. The English word noun has its roots in the Latin word “nomen”, which means “name.” There are several ways in which we may classify the types of nouns that exist in the English language. The different kinds of noun are:
1. Proper noun - Proper nouns are nouns that refer to specific entities. Example: China, Robert.
2. Collective noun - In general, collective nouns are nouns that refer to a group of something in a specific manner. Often, collective nouns are used to refer to groups of animals. Example: flock of birds, colony of ants.
3. Material noun- Material nouns refer to materials or substances from which things are made. Example: cotton, wood
4. Common noun - Common nouns refer to general, unspecific categories of entities. Example: room, table.
5. Abstract noun - Things that we cannot touch or see but can only feel or think about are called abstract nouns. Example: freedom, love.
6. Countable nouns - These are the nouns which can be counted. Example: apples, horses.
7. Uncountable nouns – These are the nouns which cannot be counted. Example: sand, air.
Nouns can be classified on the basis of their number as singular nouns (teacher, box) and plural nouns (teachers, boxes).
Another classification of nouns is done on the basis of their gender as masculine (man, lion), feminine (woman, lioness), common (doctor, friend) and neuter (table, chair).
Every noun in a sentence has a relation with some other word. This relation is called its Case. There are five cases in English:
1. The Nominative Case
2. The Objective Case
3. The Vocative Case
4. The Possessive Case
5. The Dative Case