The tense is simply a form of any verb which shows the time of an action or state of being. It relates the time of the event/state represented by the verb to the time of the utterance or the speech moment. There are, chiefly, three categories of tenses:
1. Present Tense
2. Past Tense
3. Future Tense
Further, in English language we use two tenses to talk about the present and six tenses to talk about the past. There are, however, several ways to talk about the future, some of which use the present tenses.
PRESENT TENSE: Present tense is used to talk about the actions that are being done or have been done in the recent past. It can be divided into three categories.
Simple present tense: Simple present tense can be used to express habitual action, general truths, future event as part of a fixed timetable, frequency of occurrence of something, etc.
Present continuous tense: Present continuous tense can be used to suggest action which is going on at the time of speaking.
Present perfect tense: Present perfect tense is used to suggest completed activity in immediate past (with ‘just’).
PAST TENSE: Past tense refers to the actions which have already taken place at a given point of time in the past. It can be further divided into three types.
Simple past tense: Simple past tense suggests action completed in the past and often occurs with adverb or adverb phrase of time.
Past continuous tense: Past continuous tense suggests action going on at some time in the past; time of action may or may not be indicated.
Past perfect tense: Past perfect means “past of the past.” That is, the earlier of two past actions. Therefore, past perfect tense is used to describe actions completed before a certain moment in the past.
FUTURE TENSE: Future tense talks about those actions which have not taken place as of yet. It talks about the actions that might happen in the future. Future tense also can be divided into three types.
Simple future tense: Simple future tense is used to talk about what we think or believe will happen in the future. It expresses future as fact.
Future continuous tense: Future continuous tense is used to talk about actions which will be in progress at a certain time in future.
Future perfect tense: Future perfect tense is used to talk about actions that will be completed by a certain future time.
Future Time Reference: In English there is no simple verb form for “future time” that corresponds to the simple present tense and the simple past tense. We have many different ways to talk about future time.
WILL: Includes a meaning of "future certainty" and "promise."
SHALL: "Shall" is used to indicate future action. It is most commonly used in sentences with "I" or "we," and is often found in suggestions. "
BE GOING TO + VERB: Refers to a future action or event or state that grows out of current plans or current causes
MODAL + PROGRESSIVE: All of the modals can be used for various senses of certainty.
PRESENT PROGRESSIVE: We use present progressive for future plans that have already been made.