Transformation of Sentences
Transformation is a change in form not in the essence. Transformation of a sentence means changing the form of a sentence without changing its meaning. There are different methods of transforming sentences.
There are three degrees of comparison in English to express the similarities/differences:
POSITIVE DEGREE: The positive degree indicates the adjective (some quality) in its simplest form.
COMPARATIVE DEGREE: When we compare two persons or two things with each other, with regard to some quality, we use comparative degree.
SUPERLATIVE DEGREE: The superlative degree denotes the highest degree of quality and is used when more than one persons or things are compared.
Interchange of degrees of comparison:
It is possible to change the degrees of comparison without changing the meaning of the sentence even though it is not possible to transform every degree into every other degree.
When we compare two persons or two things with each other, we can use either the positive degree or the comparative degree. For e.g.
Usain Bolt is faster than all other runners in the world. (comparative)
Usain Bolt is the fastest runner in the world. (superlative)
No other runner in the world is as fast as Usain Bolt. (positive)
Interchange of affirmative and negative forms:
Sentences which give a positive or affirmative sense are called affirmative sentences and sentences which give a negative meaning are called negative sentences.
For giving a negative form to a sentence, it will be necessary to use ‘not’ or prefixes or suffixes meaning ‘not’.
E.g. Sheila was a bright student. Affirmative
Sheila was not a dull student. Negative
Interchanging phrases or words
1. AS SOON AS → NO SOONER ... THAN: ‘As soon as’ is used for referring to two actions, one happening after the other. ‘No sooner … than’ is used for comparing two past events, one happening after the other. ‘As soon as’ is always followed immediately by a noun or adjective, whereas no sooner is always followed immediately by a verb and the term ‘than’. It emphasizes that one thing happened immediately after another.
2. TOO AND ENOUGH: We can convert ‘too’ with ‘not + adjective + enough.
3. TOO…TO → SO…THAT: Sentences containing the adverb too can be transformed by using the structure ‘so…that’. If the adverb too is followed by an adjective + to infinitive, we expand the sentence into two clauses- the first containing ‘so’ and the second beginning with ‘that’
4. FOR AND SINCE: We often use for and since when talking about time. We use ‘for’ when we measure the duration – when we say how long something lasts. ‘Since’ gives the starting point of actions, events or states. It refers to when things began.