Globe : Latitudes and Longitudes

A globe is a three-dimensional, spherical, scale model of Earth. On the globe, countries, continents and oceans are shown in their correct size. Two points on the globe are North Pole and South Pole.

Earth moves around its axis, which is an imaginary line. An equator is an imaginary line around the middle of an Earth. The northern half of the earth is known as the Northern Hemisphere and the southern half is known as the Southern Hemisphere. All parallel circles from the equator up to the poles are called parallels of latitudes. Besides the equator (0°), Tropic of Cancer, Tropic of Capricorn, Arctic Circle and Antarctic Circle are four important parallels.

The area between Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn receives the maximum heat and is called the Torrid Zone.

The areas bounded by the Tropic of Cancer and the Arctic Circle in the Northern Hemisphere, and the Tropic of Capricorn and the Antarctic Circle in the Southern Hemisphere, have moderate temperatures. These are, therefore, called Temperate Zones.

Areas lying between the Arctic Circle and the North Pole in the Northern Hemisphere and the Antarctic Circle and the South Pole in the Southern Hemisphere, is called Frigid Zones.

Longitude is the angular distance of a point east or west of the Prime Meridian and is semi-circles. There are 360 meridians of longitudes. Longitudes are helpful in calculating time and in finding places on globe. The standard meridian of India is located east of Greenwich at 82° 30' E, and is 5 hours and 30 minutes ahead of Greenwich Mean Time (GMT).

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