In the Earliest Cities

Scientific excavations by archaeologists such as Alexander Cunningham, Dayaram Sahni, Rakhaldas Banerjee, John Marshal and J.Fleet led to the discovery of Harappa, Mohenjo-Daro. Some Harappan cities are Surkotada, Dholavira, Rakhigarhi, Banawali, Alamgirpur, Kalibangan, Ropar, Lothal. Harappan sites in Punjab are Kotla Nihang Khan, Sunat, Rohira, Sanghol. The Harappan people built palaces, warehouses, granaries, dockyards, houses for citizens and tall walls. The Great Granary was used at Harappa for storing grains. The Great Bath is an elaborate public bath. Sewerage and drainage system was very advanced as compared to any other civilization of that time.

River Indus and its tributaries provided rich alluvial soil for agriculture. Harappan people made pottery on the potter’s wheel as vessels, pots, urns, dishes and flasks in clay have been found. Harappans made beaded necklaces, bangles, anklets using the soft stone steatite, shells and semi precious stones such as agate, lapis lazuli, etc. Crude Terracotta female figurines of Mother Goddess, a deity worshipped by the Harappan people, with elaborate headdress have been found in Harappa.

A yogi seated with legs crossed in meditation pose wearing a horned head gear is similar to Pashupati, the God of Beasts or Shiva. Seals with the sacred pipal tree and sacred animal are discovered. Swastik symbol have been found. Indus valley people traded with countries like Mesopotamia (Iraq), Persia and Afghanistan. Lothal was a location for dock and storage spaces for goods. Thousands of seals with animal figures of bulls, rhinoceros, tiger, elephants, buffaloes have been found.

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