India : Climate, Vegetation and Wildlife

Weather is an essential part of climate. It is the temporary state of atmospheric conditions or day-to-day changes in the atmosphere. There are four major seasons in India. They are Cold Weather Season (Winter) December to February, Hot Weather Season (Summer) March to May, Southwest Monsoon Season (Rainy) June to September and Season of Retreating Monsoon (Autumn) October and November. Climate is commonly defined as the weather averaged over a long period (more than 30 years). The climate of a place is affected by its location, altitude, distance from the sea, and relief. Due to varied climatic conditions, India has a wide range of natural vegetation.

Vegetation of India can be divided into five types – Tropical evergreen forest, Tropical deciduous forest, Thorny bushes, Mountain vegetation and Mangrove forests.

Forests are globally important in regulating climate and locally important in sustaining economic and social life. Government of India adopted a forest policy in 1952, which was further modified in 1988. Special programmes, like Van Mahotsav, were started to involve people’s participation.

Wildlife refers to all non-domesticated animals and other organisms. Forests are home to thousands of species of animals and a large variety of reptiles, amphibians, mammals, birds, insects and worms, which dwell in the forest. Gir forest in Gujarat is the home of Asiatic lions. Great Indian Desert and Rann of Kutch are well known for camels and wild asses. Wild goats, snow leopards, bears are found in the Himalayan region.

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