Major Landforms of the Earth

A landform is a feature on the Earth's surface that is part of the terrain. Mountains, hills, plateaus, and plains are the four major types of landforms. Earth’s surface is being continuously changed by erosion and weathering. Grand Canyon is a perfect example of weathering and erosion shaping the landscape over a long period of time.

A mountain is a landform that rises high above the surrounding terrain in a limited area and may have a small summit and a broad base. There are three types of mountains- fold mountains, block mountains and volcanic mountains.

A plateau is an elevated flat land and is very useful because of rich in mineral deposits. The Deccan Plateau in India is one of the oldest plateaus. In India huge reserves of iron, coal and manganese are found in the Chota Nagpur Plateau.

Plains are large stretches of flat land not more than 200 meters above sea level. Most of the plains are formed by rivers. Great rivers like the Ganga, the Brahmaputra, the Yangtze, the Tigris, the Euphrates, the Indus, the Mississippi, and the Nile, etc., formed plains over a long period of time. Life is difficult due to the rough and uneven terrain. Plains are thickly populated because of road transport and railway network. It is easy to grow crops, build a house or a road in a plain than a mountain.

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