Globe is the actual representation of the earth. It is the drawing on a sphere representing the true shape of the Earth. The map is a symbolic representation of the earth or a part of it drawn on a flat surface.
Globe and maps, both are important tools in Geography. Globe is the spherical representation of the earth, which is used for studying earth as a whole.
Map is a flat representation of the earth, which is used for studying specific parts of the earth. Map provides more information than globe. There are different types of maps providing different information. These are political maps, physical maps and thematic maps.
Political maps are designed to show governmental boundaries of countries, states, and counties, the location of major cities, etc. Physical maps show natural features like mountains, valleys, plains, oceans, plateaus, etc. Thematic maps focus on specific information. These maps show rainfall, road maps, industries, population distribution, etc.
Three main components present in any type of map are distance, direction and symbols. These components help in map interpretation. Apart from globe and maps there are other methods to represent the earth such as sketch and plan.
Sketch is a drawing based mainly on memory and spot observation and not on scale. Plan is a drawing of a small area on a large scale.