Urban Administration

Growing population and urbanization of India led to need for a local governing body to provide community services like health centers, educational institutes and housing and property tax. Municipal Corporation in India, formed under Corporations Act of 1835, is accountable for providing essential services in towns as well as villages of district/city. Largest corporations are in the four metropolitan cities of India – Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata and Chennai. As far as the structure of administration in the urban sector is concerned, districts are divided into Municipal Corporation, Municipalities and City Councils. Media plays an important role in bringing social and political issues to public. Through media information is disseminated and citizens become aware. Freedom of press is integral part of any democracy.

Municipal Corporation of India is state government formed department and it runs schools, hospitals and dispensaries. It takes steps for prevention of diseases and epidemics. Municipal Councils are governed directly by State laws. Cities are divided into different wards. Matters like location of park and hospitals usually decided by Ward Councillors. Decisions of Councillors are implemented by Commissioner and Administrative Staff. Municipal Corporation generates money through taxes on water, electricity, housing, education and other amenities. Municipal Corporation of Delhi has following departments: Sanitation, Taxation, Engineering, Complaints, Licensing, Community, Road and Horticulture. Municipal Commissioner, who is from Indian Administrative Services, is appointed. Municipal Councils are important administrative bodies. Any neglect of duty on their part causes huge health issues. For example, the City of Surat witnessed plague scare in 1994 because the Municipal Council there failed to clean up the city by disposing garbage.

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