What is Government?

Government is an institution that has the power to make laws to ensure a systematic life. Government controls and allocates resources, protects the territory of the nation. India is a vast country with much diversity. The problems and aspirations of people in villages and small towns are different from those of cities. There are three levels of government in India: the National government, the State government and the Local government. Parliament is the supreme law making body with two houses – Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha. The members of the two houses are called Members of Parliament or MPs. States have their own government. Each state is further subdivided into districts; with two types of local governments in operation: (i) Panchayats in rural areas and (ii) Municipalities in urban areas. The task of implementing laws is assigned to other government institutions, which are the specialized-bodies with specific responsibilities like security, justice, education, health, etc.

Judiciary consists of courts that resolve conflicts between individuals or groups. The Supreme Court is the highest judicial body. There are High Courts in almost all the states and the union territories. Laws are a system of rules and guidelines enforced in a country. The source of government’s power depends upon the type of government. In a democracy, it is the people who give the government the power. They vote and elect their leaders in the elections. Elected-representatives administer the country. In India, every citizen of 18 years and above has the right to vote (universal adult franchise) in elections. Monarchy is a rule by the king or the queen as the head of the country.

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