Condition, Concession and Contrast
Conditional Sentences are used to express the fact that certain things will happen only if some conditions are fulfilled.
Zero conditionals are used to talk about general truths and scientific facts which always happen irrespective of time and place under certain conditions.
CONDITIONAL SENTENCE TYPE I
This type of conditional is also called ‘Real’ because it is possible that the condition will be fulfilled if a certain condition is met.
For Example: If you start early, you can catch the train.
CONDITIONAL SENTENCE TYPE II
This type of conditional is also called ‘Unreal Conditional’ because it is possible but very unlikely, that the condition will be fulfilled.
For Example: If I found his address, I would send him a letter.
CONDITIONAL SENTENCE TYPE III
In this type of conditional, it is impossible that the condition will be met because it refers to the past. An action could have happened in the past if a certain condition had been fulfilled. But we cannot change the past.
For Example: If I had saved money, I would have bought a car.
Concession is the use of a word, phrase or clause that weakens and may contradict implications of a statement.
Words or phrases commonly used in English to indicate concession are "however," "nevertheless," "despite," "in spite of," "even so," and "although.”
For Example: Although I have explained in detail, she still does not understand.
By contrast we mean showing difference. When we want to make two points, and emphasize that one of them contrasts with the other we use some particular words to show the disparity.
Probably the most common and simplest word used to show the contrast is the conjunction ‘but’. The other words commonly used are although, though, however, nevertheless, still, yet, in spite of, despite etc.
For Example: The team was beaten, but Paul scored three goals.
Different Ways of Expressing Concession and Contrast
BY THE USE OF CONJUNCTIONS
The conjunctions such as although, though, even though, while, whereas, whilst are used to show contrast.
Although, though even though, while or whereas are subordinators used in contrast clauses.
BY THE USE OF PREPOSITIONS
Some prepositions that we can use are:
In spite of, in spite of the fact that, despite, despite the fact that, not withstanding, etc.
BY THE USE OF ADVERBS AND TRANSITION SIGNALS
However (formal), nevertheless (very formal), nonetheless (informal)
On the other hand (formal)
On the contrary (formal)