A first hand description of an event, process or incident is called a report. A report enables us to keep records, helps researchers in doing their work and informs people about current affairs. A report should be correct, concise, systematic, formal and factual.
While writing a report, keep in mind that if your purpose is only to inform your audience, you should not put your own opinion into your report or add any persuasive elements. Do not try to impress the reader; rather try to communicate the information in a simple and lucid language. Use an active voice rather than passive. Active voice makes the writing move smoothly and easily. Keep the sentences short and to the point. Do not go into a lot of details unless it is needed.
The main components of a report include a short, crisp and eye-catching headline, an introductory paragraph which informs about the incident or the event, the body which gives a detailed analysis of the incident followed by a conclusion based on facts.