Settlements are more or less a permanently inhabited place. It means the totality of the human community with all the social, material, organisational, spiritual and cultural elements that sustain it. The settlement of a region reflects the relationship between the human and the environment. We can classify the types of settlements into temporary settlements and permanent settlements.

Temporary settlements are occupied for a short duration. People living in deep forests and mountains often dwell in such settlements. The occupations of people living in temporary settlements are hunting, gathering, shifting cultivation and transhumance. Permanent settlements are the ones, which are permanently occupied. More and more people today are living in permanent settlements.

During early days, people used animals to carry their goods. Even today, animals are used for transportation in different countries. The invention of wheel made life easy.

Transport is a means by which the people and goods move. Movement of resources from the source to the destination needs a good means of transportation. In today’s world, transport decides the pace of the economic development of any country. The major means of transportation are roadways, railways, waterways and airways.

Communication is the process of conveying messages to the others. The advancement of communication has brought the information revolution. Different modes of communication are used to provide information, to educate as well as entertain. The means of communication can broadly be divided into: Personal Means of Communications, and Mass Means of Communications

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