The word that modifies or adds to the meaning of a verb, an adjective or another adverb is called an adverb. Adverbs typically answer questions such as how, in what way, when, where, and to what extent. This function is called the adverbial function, and is done not just by single words (i.e. adverbs) but by adverbial phrases and adverbial clauses.
An adverb usually modifies a verb or a verb phrase. An adverb provides information about the place, time, manner, frequency, certainty, or other circumstances of the activity denoted by the verb or verb phrase. Adverbs can also modify adjectives and other adverbs.
KINDS OF ADVERBS
There are three kinds of adverbs; namely –
1. Simple Adverbs: Simple adverbs are of the following kinds-
a) THE ADVERB OF TIME
b) THE ADVERB OF PLACE
c) THE ADVERB OF MANNER
d) THE ADVERB OF REASON
e) THE ADVERB OF COMPARISON
f) THE ADVERB OF DEGREE / QUANTITY
g) THE ADVERB OF FREQUENCY/ NUMBER
h) THE ADVERB OF AFFIRMATION/ NEGATION
2. Interrogative Adverbs: Interrogative adverbs are used to ask questions. Interrogative adverbs can also be divided into various types:
a) Interrogative Adverb of Time
b) Interrogative Adverb of Place
c) Interrogative Adverb of Manner
d) Interrogative Adverb of Reason
e) Interrogative Adverb of Degree / Quantity
f) Interrogative Adverb of Frequency/ Number
3. Relative Adverbs: A relative adverb joins two clauses by relating itself to a Noun (its antecedent) and indicates time, place, reason or manner. A relative adverb connects an adjective clause to the main clause.
FORMATION OF ADVERBS
There are certain rules that are to be followed while forming adverbs.
a) Adverbs are chiefly formed by adding ‘-ly’ to adjectives, nouns or participles.
b) When an adjective ends in ‘-y’ but is preceded by a consonant, -y is changed into -i and -ly is added.
c) Adverbs are also formed by adding some prefix ‘a’, ‘b’, ‘to’.
d) Some adverbs are formed by adding prepositions to adverbs.
e) Some adverbs are formed by combining a noun and an adjective.
f) Adverbs of Number are formed in the following way:
i) One- Once
ii) Two- Twice
iii) Three- Threefold or twice
iv) Four- Fourfold
v) Many- Manyfold