Nouns are naming words and they refer to the name, place, thing, event or quality. Nouns can be categorized on the basis of the following:
KIND: There are different kinds of nouns. They can be classified into the following:
1. Common Nouns: Most nouns are common nouns and they name persons, animals, and things. Common nouns are generally not given capital first letters unless they are at the beginning of a sentence or a part of a proper noun.
2. Proper Nouns: Proper nouns are specific names given to people, things or animals. They always require capitalization of the first letter.
3. Abstract Nouns: Abstract nouns refer to things that are not material and mainly refer to emotions, ideas, feelings, situations, etc.
4. Countable Nouns: Countable nouns are material and refer to the names of the objects that can be counted. Countable nouns can be singular or plural.
5. Uncountable Nouns: Uncountable nouns refer to the names of the objects that cannot be separated and counted.
NUMBER: On the basis of number, nouns can be classified into the following categories:
1. Singular Number: A noun that denotes one person or thing, is said to be in the singular number
2. Plural Number: A noun that denotes more than one person or thing, is said to be in the plural number
GENDER: On the basis of gender, nouns can be categorized into the following:
Masculine Gender: A noun that denotes a male person or animal or thing is said to be of the masculine gender.
Feminine Gender: A noun that denotes a female person or animal is said to be the feminine gender.
Common Gender: A noun that can be either a male or a female person or animal is said to be of the common gender. It does not denote definite sex.
Neuter Gender: A noun that denotes a thing that is neither male nor female is said to be of neuter gender. Such things are without life.
CASE: Case shows the relation of a noun (or pronoun) to another word in a sentence. There are different cases of nouns. They are as follows:
1. Nominative Case: When a noun is used as the subject of a verb, it is said to be in the nominative case.
2. Objective Case: When a noun is used as the object of a verb or governed by a preposition, it is said to be in the objective case.
3. Dative Case: When a noun is used as the Indirect Object of a verb, it is said to be in the dative case. Dative means a person or object to whom or to which something is given.
4. Vocative Case: A noun used to name a person or thing addressed is said to be in the vocative case.
5. Possessive Case: When a noun is used to show ownership or possession, it is said to be in the possessive case. It is also called the genitive case and answers the question – whose?