Pollution of Air and Water
The introduction of contaminants into the environment, which can cause harm to human beings, other living organisms and the environment, is called pollution.
The substances that contaminate air, water and soil are known as pollutants.
Pollution is classified as air pollution, water pollution, soil pollution and noise pollution.
The sources of air pollution can be natural or man-made. Smog, chlorofluorocarbons and sulphur dioxide act are common air pollutants. When rain water dissolves the oxides of sulphur and nitrogen, acid rain is formed. Green house effect and global warming are the major effects of air pollution on climate and environment. Air pollution can be controlled by planting trees.
The presence of any foreign substance in the water tends to degrade the quality and utility of the water and causes water pollution. Flood water, animal and domestic waste and industrial wastes are the sources of water pollution. Polluted water containing chemicals like lead, arsenic, etc. causes toxicity to plants and animals. Water may contain disease causing micro organisms and impurities. Hence, the purification of water is essential before drinking. Fresh water can be conserved by reducing the wastage of water.
Rain water harvesting is the storage of rain water during the monsoon season. It serves as a source of water for drinking and irrigation for rest of the year.