There are three types of economic processes. These are:
Secondary activities, and
Agriculture is a primary activity. It is the science, art and business of cultivating the soil, producing crops and raising livestock. Agriculture involves inputs, operations and outputs.
Arable land is the land that can be used for agriculture. The term is derived from the Latin word “arare” meaning, to plough.
Non-arable land is the land unsuitable for agriculture. Reasons for presence of arable land are:
Absence of fertile soil
Lack of irrigation facilities
Inadequate climatic conditions, and
Degradation of land
A farm system is concerned with the production of food, fibre and other goods by systematic growing of plants. Farming can be broadly classified into subsistence and commercial farming. Subsistence farming can further be classified into:
Primitive farming has a further classification of:
Shifting cultivation, and
Commercial farming has a further classification of:
Mixed farming, and
The major crops grown are rice, wheat, millets, maize, cotton, jute, coffee, tea, etc.
Subsistence agriculture is self-sufficient farming in which farmers grow only enough food to feed their family and pay taxes. Traditionally, low levels of technology and household labour were used to produce a small output.
Organic farming excludes the use of chemical fertilisers and pesticides. No genetic modification is involved in organic farms. It relies on crop rotation, green manure and biological pest control methods.
Agricultural development refers to efforts made to increase farm production in order to meet the growing demand of the increasing population. Mechanisation of agriculture is also another aspect of agricultural development. The ultimate aim of agricultural development is to increase the food security. Food security exists when all people, at all times, have access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life.