How, When and Where

History is the study of past. It also deals with various questions like how, when and where. When we study history, we also have to deal with dates and periodisation. Most of the people count dates as important factor while studying history but history is about changes that occur over time. In history, we should not focus on war and kings only, it deals with the livelihood, cities, kingdom and culture and society. We can also find out about history by asking questions related to invention of railways, newspaper and tea- coffee, etc. History and time have a relation as history does not occur exactly at a particular time and on a particular date, but still dates are important.

British historians’ history deals with the rule of governor-generals. Colonial historians periodised the Indian history into three periods of Hindu, Muslim and British but modern-day historians have periodised Indian history in ancient, medieval, and modern periods. History in the west has been divided on the forces of modernity which means science, liberty, equality, reason, democracy and fraternity but all these forces of modernity were absent in india during the colonial rule. As India was under the colonial rule, so we also have to use official records of the colonial rulers and administrators. These are comprised of official records for decision, memos, plan, policy, noting, agreement, survey, reports and investigation. We can find these records in national archives. This is also having the records of British surveys, census operation. While we study history from the colonial point of view, we also have to deal with the defects of official records as they do not throw much light on the activities of people in countryside, so we can also use the diaries of people, accounts of travelers, autobiographies, and popular booklets to count the sources of modern Indian history.

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