An independent judiciary has become one of the essential requisites of a democratic government. Traditionally recognised as one of the essential organs of the state, the role of the judiciary has been that of interpretation of rules of the state and upholding the law of the land. India, the largest representative democracy of the world, possesses a well-structured and independent judicial system. On the 28th of January, 1950, two days after India became a Sovereign Democratic Republic, the Supreme Court came into being. The inauguration took place in the Chamber of Princes in the Parliament building which also housed India's Parliament. The Court moved into the present building (Tilak Marg, New Delhi) in 1958.
Lord Bryce has said, “There is no better test of excellence of a government than the efficiency and independence of its judicial system.” An independent judiciary ensures that judges of the Courts function without the influence, interference or pressure from either the Executive or the Legislature. The role of the judiciary can be classified as – dispute resolution, judicial review and upholding the law and enforcing Fundamental Rights. Integrated judicial system means the decisions made by higher courts are binding on the lower Courts. Appellate judicial system exists in India, showing that the judicial system in the country is integrated.
The High Court stands at the head of a State's judicial administration. A High Court has powers of superintendence over all subordinate courts within its jurisdiction, namely, the District and Sessions courts and their lower courts. Every judge of High Court shall hold office till he attains the age of sixty-two years. The different branches of legal system are – criminal law and civil law. Advent of Public Interest Litigation (PIL) is one of the key components of the approach of ‘judicial activism’, attributed to Indian judiciary.