Land, Soil and Water Natural Vegetation and Wildlife Resources
Land is the most important but unevenly distributed natural resource. It covers only about 30% of the total area of the earth’s surface. All parts of this small percentage of land are not habitable. About 90% of the world’s population is concentrated only on 30% of the land area.
The uneven distribution of population in different parts of the world is mainly due to varied characteristics of land and climate. The rugged topography, steep slopes of the mountains, low-lying areas susceptible to water logging, desert areas, and thick forested areas are normally sparsely populated or uninhabited. River valleys are most suitable for habitation due to plain topography and fertile soil.
Land use is determined by physical factors, which includes topography, soil, climate, minerals and availability of water and human factors, which include population and technology.
Soil is the most productive and renewable layer of the earth. It supports plant growth and different types of living organisms. Soil conservation is the application of strategies for the prevention of soil pollution and erosion. It is necessary to maintain the soil fertility and increase agricultural productivity.
Water is a life supporting resource. Earth is also known as the watery planet as about three-fourth of the earth is covered with water. Ocean water is saline and not fit for human consumption. Fresh water accounts for only about 2.7% of all the water available on earth.
Natural vegetation and wildlife exists only in the narrow zone of contact between the lithosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere that we call biosphere. Natural vegetation refers to the plant community that has been left undisturbed for a long time. Our country has a great variety of natural vegetation and wildlife.