The Indian Constitution
Constitution is a written document containing constitutive rules. Every state or an organisation is governed by these fundamental rules. All democratic countries are likely to have a Constitution. But it is not necessary that all countries that have a Constitution are democratic. Constitution lays out certain ideals that forms basis of country in which one wants to live. It reflects fundamental nature of the society. It serves as a set of rules and principles that become the basis for governing the country.
Nepal had a monarchical form of government. Nepal people started a movement to replace the Parliamentary monarchy with a new democratic republic. They wanted to write a new Constitution that would establish Nepal as a democracy. In 2008, the newly elected Constituent Assembly declared Nepal as a ‘Federal Democratic Republic’, abolishing 240 years of old monarchy. The Constitution ensures minorities are not excluded from anything that is routinely available to the majority. It checks inter-community domination as well as intra-community domination.
The Indian Constitution was framed by a group of around 300 people who became members of the Constituent Assembly in 1946 and who met periodically for the next three years to write India’s Constitution. The key features of the Indian Constitution are – federalism, parliamentary form of government, separation of powers, fundamental rights and secularism. The three levels of government in India are central government, state government and panchayati raj. The three organs of the State are – legislative, executive and judiciary. The Constitution guarantees Universal Adult Suffrage for all the citizens. Fundamental Rights protect citizens from arbitrary and absolute exercise of power by State. Directive Principles of State Policy, embodied in Part IV of the Constitution, are directions given to Central and State governments to guide the establishment of a just society in the country.