The Making of the National Movement: 1870-1947

Many political associations were formed by modern educated in India like the Poona Sarvajanik Sabha, the Indian Association, The Madras Mahajan Sabha and the Bombay Presidency Association. The Arms Act, the Vernacular Press Act and the Ilbert Bill were passed by British. In the Indian National Congress, the trio of Lal-Bal-Pal criticised Moderates for their ‘Politics of Prayers.’ Tilak demanded Swaraj’. Bengal was partitioned by the Viceroy, Lord Curzon, followed by the Swadeshi Movement. The Muslim League was formed by Muslim landlords and Nawabs. During 1907, The Congress split between Moderates and Radicals. In 1916, the Congress and the Muslim League signed the Lucknow Pact. The Rowlatt Act was followed by the Jallianwala Bagh incident. Gandhji started Rowlatt Satyagraha, also supported Khilafat Movement. Later launched a full-fledged Non-Cooperation Movement but Chauri Chaura incident ended the Movement. Swaraj Party, Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh and the Communist Party of India were launched in mid 1920s. Simon Commission came to India to decide the political future of India. Bhagat Singh followed revolutionary trends. At the Lahore Session, Jawaharlal Nehru demanded Purna Swaraj. Gandhi decided to lead the Dandi March to break the Salt Law. Provincial Autonomy in Government of India Act was passed in 1935. Gandhi launched the Quit India Movement in 1942, using slogan “Do or Die” while Subhash Chandra Bose created Azad Hind Fauj or INA. After the elections of 1946, League forwarded ‘Two Nation Theory’. After the failure of the Cabinet Mission, the League prepared for ‘Direct Action Day’. Partition created two independent nations of India and Pakistan.

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