Weavers, Iron Smelter & Factory Owners
Industrialisation in England was linked to the colonisation of India as British industrialists saw India as a suitable market. Indian textiles were popularly demanded in the global market, particularly the fabrics of Muslin, Calico, Chintz and Bandanna. The Patola fabric was a design woven in Surat, Ahmedabad and Patan. Weaving centres of Jamdani were Dacca and Lucknow. British cloth makers demanded a ban on Indian cloths, led to the enacting of the Calico Act. The need to compete with Indian textiles led to several technological innovations like the Spinning Jenny by James Hargreaves. Richard Arkwright used the steam engine in cotton mill. British trade led to the drain of wealth from India to England. Julahas or Momins, Tanti, Sale, Kaikollar, and Devangs were the weaving communities in India. Indian cloth making process included spinning, weaving, colouring and dying and printing. Indian weavers could not compete with British industries so thousands of Indian weavers lost their jobs. Parsis and Gujarati businessmen established cotton mills in Bombay, Ahmadabad and Kanpur. Textile industry got a boost during the First World War.
The Sword of Tipu Sultan was made of carbon steel called Wootz. So Francis Buchanan studied the technique of making Wootz. Michael Faraday, a scientist who discovered electricity and electromagnetism was attracted by Indian Wootz. During 1904, Charles Weld, and Dorabji Tata, son of Jamsetji Tata searched for iron ore, found at Rajhara Hills for the Bhilai Steel Plant. Near Subarnarekha River, a factory and the industrial town of Jamshedpur was established. In 1912, The Tata Iron and Steel Company (TISCO) was setup, helped British during the First World War and later on to Indian Railways.