Natural Vegetation and Wild Life
Natural vegetation and wildlife found in different regions is different as it depends upon the relief and climatic features like land, soil, temperature, and precipitation of that particular region. The major types of forests found in India are Tropical Evergreen Forests, Tropical Deciduous Forests, Tropical Thorn Forests and Scrubs, Montane Forests and Mangrove Forests.
India is rich in its fauna. It has approximately 90,000 animal species. The country has about 2,000 species of birds. There are 2,546 species of fish, which account for nearly 12% of the world’s stock. It also shares between 5 and 8 per cent of the world’s amphibians, reptiles and mammals. But, due to excessive exploitation of plants and animal resources by human beings, the ecosystem has been disturbed. The government has taken many steps to protect the flora and fauna of our country. Some of these are the establishment of biosphere reserves, national parks, wildlife sanctuaries, etc.
A large geographical area of distinctive plant and animal groups, adapted to that particular location is known as ‘biome’.
Ecosystem is defined by the interdependence and interrelation of all plants and animals in their physical environment. The nature of plants determines the wildlife in any area. Human beings are an integral part of the ecosystem.
National Forest Policy aims at maintaining 33% of the geographical area under forest cover. In 2007, the actual forest cover in India was only 23.84% according to the State of Forest Report, 2007.
Introduction of Project Tiger, Project Rhino, Project Great Indian Bustard and many other eco-developmental projects have been introduced to protect our natural vegetation and wildlife.