The people are important to develop the economy and society of a country. Human beings are producers and consumers of earth’s resources. Therefore, it is important to know about the population size, distribution, and qualities of the population, etc. The uneven distribution of population is because the population shares a close relationship with the physical, socio-economic and historical factors.

Density of population is the number of persons per unit area. Population density of India is 382 persons per sq km, according to the Census of 2011. India is one of the most densely populated countries in the world. Density helps in better understanding of the spatial distribution of population in relation to the land.

Migration plays a significant role in changing the size of population, composition of population, and distribution of population. Three broad categories of different age groups in the country are children (generally below 15 years), working age (15–59 years), old people (Above 59 years).

Literacy as per the 2011 Census was 74.04%; 82.14% for males and 65.46% for females. Kerala retained its top position with 94% literacy rate, closely followed by Mizoram and Lakshadweep, both having 92% each. Distribution of population can also be shown according to the number of people in different types of occupation. The main occupational structures are primary activities, secondary activities, and tertiary activities.

Health is an important component of the population composition that affects the developmental process. The Government of India initiated the comprehensive Family Planning Programme in 1952. Family Welfare Programme aimed to promote the responsible and planned parenthood on voluntary basis. National Population Policy, 2000 is a culmination of years of planned efforts.

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