Working of Institutions

Democracy means much more than just electing the rulers. The rulers in a democracy have to follow certain rules and procedures. Democracy works with institutions like legislature, executive and judiciary. In every democratic government, there are certain decision makers like president, prime minister, parliament, council of ministers, cabinet ministers, judiciary, etc.

The Parliament is a national assembly of elected representatives. The Indian Parliament consists of two Houses – the Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha. At the state level it is the Legislature or Legislative Assembly. The Parliament has authority to make laws for the country. In India, any law needs to be passed in both the Houses. Functionaries who take day-to-day decisions are collectively known as the Executive. The Political Executive consists of political leaders who take big decisions. The Permanent Executive consists of Civil Servants who carry out day-to-day administration.

In India, the President is the Head of the State. All major appointments like Chief Justice of India, Judges of Supreme Court and High Court, Governors of States, etc. are made in the name of President. A powerful judiciary is essential for any democracy. Judiciary in India consists of Supreme Court, High Courts of states, District courts and courts at the local level. The judiciary in independent, i.e. it is not controlled by legislature or executive. Any citizen can approach the courts through Public Interest Litigation (PIL).

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