Mahatma Gandhi and the Nationalist Movement
After launching Satyagraha in South Africa, Gandhiji returned to India in 1915. Subsequently, he launched successful Satyagraha campaigns in Champaran, Ahmedabad and Kheda. During World War – I, British passed several repressive laws, including Rowlatt Act, which was criticized by all, including Gandhiji. In Amritsar, people gathering to celebrate Baisakhi on 13 April 1919, at Jallianwalla Bagh, were fired upon. After this, Gandhiji launched Non-Cooperation Movement. During this movement, government machinery was disrupted, while British services were substituted by national ones. But after Chauri Chaura incident, Gandhiji was arrested and imprisoned, but was released in 1924.
In 1927, an all-British Commission, under Sir John Simon, was sent to India to evaluate working of reforms of 1919. It proposed granting Dominion Status to India. But in 1929, Congress mentioned Purna Swaraj as its goal. In 1930, Gandhiji launched Salt Satyagraha, following which people broke all unjust laws. Many Indians, including Gandhiji, were arrested. He was soon released and, after meeting Viceroy Lord Irwin, attended Second Round Table Conference at London in 1931. But as the Conference proved inconclusive, Gandhiji returned to India and resumed the movement.
Second World War broke out in 1939. Gandhiji and Congress supported British, provided latter promised Indian independence after War. Upon refusal, Congress ministries resigned. In 1940, Muslim League demanded separate state for Muslims – Pakistan. In 1942, British sent Sir Stafford Cripps to India for negotiations. But after talks broke down, Gandhiji launched Quit India Movement which continued despite arrest of Congress leaders. End of war and failure of Cabinet Mission was followed by communal violence. Finally, India’s independence and partition came on 15th August, 1947. Gandhiji, disappointed by partition, appealed for brotherhood. He was shot dead by Nathuram Godse.