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A solution of KOH hydrolyses CH3CHClCH2CH3 and CH3CH2CH2CH2Cl. Which one of these is more easily hydrolysed?Marks:1
CH3CH2CH2CH2Cl undergoes hydrolysis more easily than CH3CHClCH2CH3.CH3CH2CH2CH2Cl being a primary alkyl halide has less steric hindrance than CH3CHClCH2CH3 which is secondary alkyl halide.
Draw the structural formula of 1-phenylpropan-1-one molecule.Marks:1
Give the IUPAC name of
H2N – CH2 – CH2 – CH = CH2Marks:1
Define ‘rate of a reaction’.Marks:1
The rate of reaction is the change in the concentration of any one of the reactants or products per unit time.
Which point defect in crystals of a solid decreases the density of the solid?Marks:1
Vacancy defect decreases the density of a substance. Vacancy defect in ionic solids is known as Schottky defect.
Give an example of ‘shape-selective catalyst’.Marks:1
Zeolites are shape-selective catalysts.
Draw the structure of O3 molecule.Marks:1
Give an example of ionization isomerism.Marks:1
Non-ideal solutions exhibit either positive or negative deviations from Raoult’s law. What are these deviations and why are they caused? Explain with one example for each type.Marks:2
These deviations are caused due to difference in intermolecular forces of attraction between solute molecules in pure solute, solvent molecules in pure solvent and solute and solvent in a solution.
Non ideal solutions showing positive deviation
Non ideal solutions showing negative deviation
The intermolecular attractive forces between solute-solvent molecules are weaker than those between solute-solute and solvent-solvent molecules, i.e., A-B < A-A and B-B interactions.
The intermolecular attractive forces between solute-solvent molecules are stronger than those between solute-solute and solvent-solvent molecules, i.e., A-B > A-A and B-B interactions.
Mixture of ethanol and acetone. In pure ethanol, molecules are hydrogen bonded. On adding acetone, its molecules get in between the ethanol molecules and break some of the hydrogen bonds between them. Due to weakening of interactions, the solution shows positive deviation from Raoult’s law.
Mixture of chloroform and acetone. This is because chloroform molecule is able to form hydrogen bond with acetone molecule. This decreases the escaping tendency of molecules for each component and consequently the vapour pressure decreases resulting in negative deviation from Raoult’s law.
A reaction is of first order in reactant A and of second order in reactant B. How is the rate of this reaction affected when (i) the concentration of B alone is increased to three times (ii) the concentrations of A as well as B are doubled?Marks:2
Since it is given that a reaction is first order in reactant A and second order in reactant B; therefore,
r = k [A] [B]2 …………………………. (i)
Where r is the rate of reaction and k is the rate constant of the reaction.
When concentration of B alone is increased three times, let the new rate be r1
r1= k [A] [3B]2 = 9k [A] [B]2 …………………………. (ii)
Dividing eq.(ii) by eq.(i), we get
Therefore, the rate of the reaction would become 9 times the initial rate when the concentration of B alone is increased three times.
When the concentration of both the reactants is doubled, then the rate of the reaction would be r2
r2= k [2A] [2B]2 = 8k [A] [B]2 …………………………. (iii)
Dividing eq.(iii) by eq.(i), we get