Geography: 2016: CBSE: [All India]: Set – I
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Name the country where sex ratio is most unfavorable to women in the world?Marks:1
Latvia has been recorded the most unfavorable sex ratio to women like 85 males per 100 females in the world.
Define the concept of Human Development.Marks:1
The term ‘human development’ is an expansion of human capabilities, a widening of choices, ‘an enhancement of freedom, and a fulfillment of human rights.’This concept was developed by the economist MahbubulHaq.
How has the ‘New Ruhr’ landscape emerged?Marks:1
The Ruhr region came into existence through industrialisation and its emerging identity has been strongly based on labour. With the beginning of the decline of the coal industry in the late 1950s and the steel crises from the 1970s, it gave more emphasis to emerge the ‘New Ruhr’. Thus, they more focused to evolve new industries like the huge Opel Car assembly plant, new chemical plants, universities, etc.
Assess the positive aspect of ‘trade liberalisation’.Marks:1
Trade liberalisation involves removing barriers to trade between different countries and encouraging free trade. It allows countries to specialise in producing the goods and services where they have a comparative advantage (produce at lowest opportunity cost). This enables a net gain in economic welfare.
“The proportion of workers in the agricultural sector in India has shown a declining trend over the last few decades.” What does this trend indicate?Marks:1
Over the last few decades, a declining trend of the proportion of workers in the agricultural sector in India indicates the migration towards the urban due to good opportunities to earn bread and butter.
Why do people migrate in large number from rural to urban areas in India?Marks:1
In India, a large number of people migrate from rural to urban areas because of – poverty, high population pressure on land, lack of basic infrastructural facilities like health care, education, etc.
Name the two countries which are the largest trading partners of India as per Economic Survey Report of 2011-12.Marks:1
According to Economic Survey Report of 2011-12, United Arab Emirates(UAE) and China are the two largest trading partners of India.
“The knowledge and understanding of the laws of nature are extremely valuable to humankind”. Explain the values that can help to use the gifts of nature in a sustainable manner.Marks:3
The best way to manage and maintain natural resources is to make these goods available for human use in ways that sustain the resource for future generations. The values that can help to use the gifts of nature in a sustainable manner are as follows:
- To grow different types of plants, herbs, trees and grass in an open areas. Trees may be harvested from a forest, but the forest should be replanted at a rate that is equal to or greater than the rate of harvest.
- To save non-renewable natural resources like coal, petroleum and natural gas by using less amount rather use renewable energy resources in maximum quantum like: Solar, wind and hydro or water.
- Avoid of executing developmental works like dam, road and industrial construction in forest areas or by replacing the vegetation cover.
- Study the table given below and answer the questions that follow: (3´1 = 3)
Continent-wise Distribution of Million Cities
North and Central America
(1) Name the two continents which have shown the highest growth rate of million cities from 1950 to 2000.
(2) What could have been the reason for such a growth of million cities?
(3) Give the meaning of a ‘million city’.
1. Asia and North and Central America arethe two continents having the highest growth rate of million cities from 1950 to 2000.
2. Various reasonsare responsible behind the growth of million cities. Firstly, large number of migration takes place from rural to urban areas because of lack of employment opportunities. Secondly, overpopulation and lack of infrastructural facilities are equally accountable for this growth. Apart from these factors, natural disasters like flood, drought, cyclone, storm, earthquake, etc. also accelerate the pace of this growth.
3. A city with at least or over a million inhabitants or residents, is called million city.In 1950 only 3 cities satisfied this definition – London, New York and Tokyo, but nowadays, this number is far greater. As of 2015, there are about 500 metropolitan areas around the world with a population of one million people or more. They were generally found in developed countries but with the increasing of globalization they have spread into developing nation’s cities like Mumbai, Shanghai, etc.
Differentiate between ‘Hamletted’ and ‘Dispersed’ rural settlements of India.Marks:3
Hamleted Settlements:These types of settlements are fragmented into several small units. The main settlement does not have much influence on the other units. Very often the original site is not easily distinguishable and these hamlets are often spread over the area with intervening fields. These are locally named as faliya, para, dhana, dhani, nanglay etc. These settlements are generally found in West Bengal, eastern Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh and coastal plains.
These settlementsare characterized by units of small sizeconsist of a single house to a small group of house. It varies from two to seven huts.Therefore, in this type, hamlets are scattered over a vast area and does not have any specific pattern. Such type of settlements are found in tribal areas
of central part of India covering Chhota Nagpur plateau, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan,in the hills of north Bengal,Jammu& Kashmir, Tamil Nadu and Kerala.