History: 2010: CBSE: [Delhi]: Set – II
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Mention any four social groups from which the followers of Buddha came.Marks:2
The followers of Buddha came from Brahamana, Kshtrayias, Vaishya and Shudra.
How were the village artisans compensated by the villagers for their services? Write about any one.Marks:2
A land which was useless but worth to be sown was given to the artisans.
What do the buildings that survived in the Royal Capital of Vijayanagar tell us? Mention any two points.Marks:2
The buildings that survived in the royal capital of Vijayanagar tell us about the grandeur of Vijayanagar. The Mahanavami dibba is surrounded by high double walls with a street running between them. Gopurams included structures of immense hight that must have been a mark of imperial authority, best exemplified by the raja gopurams or royal gateways that dwarfed the towers on the central shrines.
How did introduction of railways in 1853 bring a change in the fortunes of towns? Mention any two changes.Marks:2
Introduction of railways in 1853 brought a drastic change in the fortunes of towns. Economic activity increased. Due to which large number of people migrated to these cities in search of job and this led to the rise of urban centres.
Mention two characteristics of neo-classical style of architecture for public buildings in
during the British period. IndiaMarks:2
The neo classical style of architecture was characterised by the construction of geometrical structures fronted with lofty pillars. It took its inspiration from the building style of ancient
“Communication along both land and riverine route was vital for the existence of the Mauryan Empire.” Justify the statement.Marks:5
Water was an important mode of transport in the ancient times. Journey from the centre to the provinces could have taken weeks. Therefore, an arrangement for provisions as well as protection for those who were on the move was an important task and responsibility of the empire. It is obvious that the army was an important means for ensuring the latter. Megasthenes mentions a committee with six sub-committees for coordinating military activity of these – one looked after the navy, the second managed transport and provisions.
How did the historians classify the content and the language of Mahabharat? Explain.Marks:5
Answer:The contents of the Mahabharata are classified as, the narrative and the didactic portion. The portion that contains stories were designated as the narrative while the portions that contained descriptions about social norms were designated as didactic. The Mahabharata is written in Sanskrit. But the language used in this text is simpler than that used in the Vedas.
“Buddism grew rapidly both during the life time of the Buddha and also after his death.” Justify the statement.Marks:5
Answer:The factor that contributed to the growth of Buddhism in
and abroad was its simplicity. The teachings of Buddha were simple. He preached a religion devoid of all material and expensive rituals. There was no place for sacrifices and it was accessible to the common man. The Sangha developed into a highly organised fraternity which became an effective instrument for the dissemination of Buddhist thoughts. India
Royal patronage was extended to Buddhism by several rulers including Ashoka, Kanishka and Harsha. They contributed greatly to its popularity and growth.
Describe briefly what the buildings that survive tell us about the way spaces were organised and used in Vijayanagar.Marks:5
The excavations of Vijaynagar cities provide the evidence of their architectural plans. Following are the key features of the Vijaynagar architecture:
a) By studying its fortifications, we come to know about the defence requirements and military preparedness of a city.
b) Buildings provide us information about the spread of ideas and cultural influences, if we compare them with the buildings constructed at other places.
c) They convey ideas which their builders or patrons wished to project.
d) Buildings contain symbols which are a product of their cultural context.e) This can be understood when we combine information from other sources like literature, inscriptions and popular traditions.
“Many consider Jalaluddin Akbar (1556-1605) as the greatest of the Mughal emperors.” Support the statement with evidence.Marks:5
Akbar is considered as the greatest Mughal emperor because of his administrative, religious and social policies. He not only protected and expanded the empire, but also worked for welfare of the people. He modified and introduced some new features in the Mansabdari system and took steps to boost trade, agriculture and industry. He followed a tolerant religious policy. Pilgrimage tax and Jizya were abolished. State services were opened to Hindus and the policy of Sulh-I-Kul was followed. He gave respectable positions to the defeated kings as well.