Anatomy of Flowering Plants

Flowers are of different shape, size, and structure, mode of nutrition, habitat and life span. They have well developed root and shoot system.The floral feature of a flower is represented in by floral diagram and floral formula for better understanding.

Like animals, plant cells also combined to form tissues.Plant consists of two types of tissues:meristematic tissue and the permanent tissue.

Meristematic tissues are of three different
types : apical meristem, intercalary meristem and lateral meristem.

Permanent tissuesare of two types: simple and complex tissues.

Simple tissuesare further classified as parenchyma, collenchyma and sclerenchyma.

Complex tissues are of two types: xylem and phloem.

The epidermal, fundamental and vascular tissue systems are the three major tissue systems found in plants.

The epidermal tissue forms the outer covering of the plant body and mainly comprises the epidermis, stomata and trichomes.

The fundamental or ground tissue system develops from the ground tissue i.e., meristem and it mainly consists of simple tissues like parenchyma, collenchyma and sclerenchyma.

The vascular tissue system mainly comprises the two major conducting tissues in a plant i.e., xylem and phloem.

The flowering plants that possess two cotyledons are called dicotyledonous plants and those having single cotyledon is called monocotyledonous plants.

The cells in the endodermis of dicot stem have casparian strips in their radial walls and the vascular bundles are conjoint, collateral and open.

Xylem in monocot stem is endarch and it is divided into metaxylem and protoxylem.

Epidermis forms the outer layer in both the dicot and monocot roots having the cortex present just below it.

Dicot plants have dorsiventral leaves whereas, monocot plants have isobilateral leaves.

Secondary growth occurs in the stems and the roots of only dicotyledonous plants.

The spring wood is formed during the spring season whereas the autumn wood is formed during the winters.

Bark is basically the tissue present outside the secondary xylem whereas, lenticels are the broken areas present on the periderm.


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