Morphology of Flowering Plants

Root, Stem and Leaf

The roots are the underground, non-green part of the plant. They grow from radicle.The roots provide anchorage to the plant. They also help in the absorption of water and minerals from the soil.There are three types of roots: tap root, fibrous root, adventitious root.

The roots are divided into different regions, namelyroot cap, meristematic region, region of elongation, root hair region, and region of maturation. In some plants roots change their shape and structure and become modified to perform functions other than absorption and conduction of water and minerals.

The stem is apositively phototropic, ascending part of the plant. It grows from plumuleand has nodes and internodes. The function of the stem is conduction of water, minerals and food. The region of the stem from where the leaves arise is called a node while the region between two nodes is called an internode.

The stem in plants is modify for various secondary functions like storage, climbing, protection and vegetative propagation
The leaf is a lateral, generally flattened structure borne on the stem. It arisesfrom the node and helps in photosynthesis, exchange of gases and transpiration through stomata.

The leaf consists of three main parts: Base, Petiole and Lamina

The arrangement of veins and veinletsin the lamina of leaf is called venation. The leaves can be classified as: Simple leaf and compound leaf

The arrangement of leaves on the stem is called phyllotaxy.

The leaves get modified for various other functions like: storage, climbing and defense.

Reproductive structure and plant families
The flower is the site of sexual reproduction in plants. The different parts of the flower arecalyx, corolla, androecium and gynoecium.

The calyx is the outermost whorl of the flower. The whorl of coloured petals inner to the calyx is called the corolla. The androecium is whorl of male reproductive parts called stamens. The gynoecium is the whorl of female reproductive parts, called carpels.

The arrangement of sepals with respect to other sepals or arrangement of petals with respect to other petals is called aestivation.
On the basis of the presence of male and female reproductive parts, flowers can be of two types: bisexual flower and unisexual flower

The pattern of arrangement of flowers on the shoot is called inflorescence.
After fertilisation, the ovary is converted into fruits and ovules develop into seed. There are two types of seeds: dicotyledonous seed and monocotyledonous seed

The summarized description of the flower in the form of symbols is called floral formula.
The diagrammatic representation of the flower parts, their number and arrangement with respect to one another is called floral diagram.

Some important plant families areFabaceae, Solanaceae and Liliaceae.

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