Java is an object oriented language developed by James Gosling and colleagues at Sun Microsoft Systems in 1991. The initial name of this language was “Oak” but it was renamed in 1995 as “Java”. Java programming is classified into two types: stand alone system and internet applets. Stand alone system is also known as Java Application. Java programs that are downloaded from internet according to the user’s requirements are called Internet Applets.
Java is simple and familiar as it fixes clumsy features of C++. Java is object oriented as it focuses on data and methods manipulating data. In Java, the compiler generates platform independent byte codes rather than native machine code. These byte codes are interpreted by JVM to execute the code. Java Virtual Machine (JVM) is simulated computer within computer. Java is portable because the same application can run on all platforms. Java is robust as it performs extensive compile-time type checking. Java is multithreaded as the threads allow multiple concurrent activities within process. Java provides highly dynamic runtime environment. Java is secure because JVM verifies all byte codes before execution.
There two types of language translators are compiler and interpreter. Compiler translates source to executable machine readable form in one go. Interpreter works line by line and converts source program and executes it at same time. Both compiler and interpreter convert source code into the machine code.