Human Development Index

Introduction

Human development is the process of widening people’s choices as well as raising the level of well-being achieved. The concept of human development covers all aspects of human well-being economic, social, cultural and political. It puts people at the center stage. The Importance of human development is as follows:

    It is an end

    Helps to control population

    Increases efficiency

    Better utilisation of resources and

    Creates healthy society

The human development index (HDI) is one of the most ambitious and accepted index of economic development. It measures the economic welfare and status of development in a particular country. United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) developed the HDI for the first time in 1990 in its human development report. HDI is calculated by taking the weighteged average of life expectancy index (LEI), educational attainment index (EAI) and adjusted GDP per capita Index (AGDPI).

The merits of HDI are:

    It combines economic and social indicators.

    It is a comprehensive measure of development.

    It increases the understanding of development.

    It focuses on the ultimate objective of development.

The demerits of HDI are:

    It ignores many factors.

    It ignores the problem of inequality.

    It makes the index imperfect.

    It is arbitrary.

The National Human Development Report for India is prepared by the Planning Commission. It measures nearly 70 social indicators of various aspects of quality of life and wellbeing of people. The NHDR has found that:

    The level of HDI has improved over the years, but is still low.

    HDI is higher in urban areas as compared to the rural areas, but the rural–urban gap is narrowing with every passing year.

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  • Q1

    Consider the following statements and identify the incorrect statement.

    Marks:1
    Answer:

    Human development is a traditional approach compared to broader approach to development.

    Explanation:

    Human development is a broader to development compared to traditional approach. It views economic development with the purpose of improving the human conditions from all angles.

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  • Q2

    Human development index is more comprehensive measure of development than ___________.

    Marks:1
    Answer:

    Both (a) and (b)

    Explanation:

    Human development index is more comprehensive measure of development than either the Physical quality of index or per capita income. It is a broader indicator of the development performance of a country.

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  • Q3

    Identify the formula for computing the components of human development index among the following options.

    Marks:1
    Answer:


    Explanation:

    Formula for computing the components of human development index is:
     

    HDI is the geometric mean of normalized indices of each of the three dimensions (health, education and index) of human development.

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  • Q4

    _____________ is measured by a country’s gross national income adjusted for purchasing power parity in terms of US dollars.

    Marks:1
    Answer:

    Decent standard of living

    Explanation:

    Decent standard of living is measured by a country’s gross national income adjusted for purchasing power parity in terms of US dollars. Real per capita income is taken as a measure of standard of living of the people of a country.

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  • Q5

    The composite human development index is the measure of achievement of a country in ____________ basic dimensions of human development.

    Marks:1
    Answer:

    three

    Explanation:

    The composite human development index is the measure of achievement of a country in three basic dimensions of human development. These are:
    (i) A long and healthy life
    (ii) To acquire knowledge

    (iii) To have a decent standard of living

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