Measures to Remove Poverty
Poverty is the deficiency of basic necessities of life. Government has adopted three dimensional approaches towards poverty alleviation, which are:
Targeted Poverty Alleviation Programme
Minimum Needs Programme
The Growth-oriented Approach aimed at speeding the pace of economic growth by rapid increase in GDP and per capita income. It was believed that the effects of economic growth will trickle down to the poorer sections in the form of more employment opportunities, as the result of expansion of agricultural and non-agricultural areas. This strategy failed in eradicating poverty, due to the following reasons:
Rate of growth of GDP has been very low around 4% per annum that could just restrict the spread of poverty.
The benefits of economic growth did not trickle down to masses. This widens the gap between poor and rich.
The targeted poverty alleviation programmes is another approach of the government. The poverty alleviation programs initiated by government with the objective to raise employment and income are grouped under:
Self employment program and
wage employment program
Some of the Self-Employment Programme includes:
Rural Employment Generation Programme (REGP)
Prime Minister’s Rozgar Yojana (PMRY)
Swarna Jayanti Shahari Rozgar Yojana (SJSRY) and
Swarnajyanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana (SGSY)
The wage employment programme includes programmes like:
Jawahar Gram Samridhi Yojana (JGSY)
Sampoorna Grameen Rozgar Yojana (SGRY)
National Food for Work Programme (NFWP)
Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA)
The minimum needs programme was initiated by the government from fifth five year plan. The objective of this programme was providing minimum basic necessities at cheaper rates and other social services, free of cost to the poor. It includes three major programmes which aim at improving the food and nutritional status of the poor, which are:
Public Distribution System (PDS)
Integrated Child Development Scheme (ICDS) and
Mid-day Meal Scheme
The other programmes initiated by the government for the elimination of poverty are:
Development of cottage and small scale industries
Measures to control population and
On critically assessing the Poverty Alleviation Programmes we find that there have been many achievements as well as failures. The failures of Poverty Alleviation Programme are: shortage of efficient staff members, complex procedural requirements in implementing these programmes, missing of follow up actions, etc.
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The system under which fair price shops are set up in villages, towns and backward areas to distribute essential commodities, particularly food grains at subsidized rates is calledMarks:1
Public Distribution System
Explanation:PDS means distribution of essential commodities to a large number of people. It evolved as a major instrument of the Government’s economic policy for ensuring availability of foodgrains to the public at affordable prices.
Security furnished by the society to its members against risk through appropriate organization is termed asMarks:1
Explanation:Poverty alleviation measures comprise of this scheme i.e. to provide ‘social security’ to the poor and vulnerable section of the population in both urban and rural areas.
Self-help groups get money through the programme namedMarks:1
Swarna Jayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojna
Explanation:Earlier, under self employment programmes, financial assistance was given to families or individuals. But under SGSY, banks and government provide partial financial assistance to different self-help groups.
The scheme under which children between the age group 2-14 are given free cooked food is known asMarks:1
Mid Day Meal scheme.
Explanation:MDM or Mid Day Meal programme is a food security measure under which the children between the age group of 2-14 are given free cooked food in school.
National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme became operative fromMarks:1
Explanation:In August 2005, the Parliament passed this new Act to provide guaranteed wage employment to every household whose adult volunteer is to do unskilled manual work for a minimum of 100 days in a year.