Active and Passive Voice
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Mom had made breakfast by the time we came back. The passive voice of this sentence isMarks:1
The breakfast had been made by mom by the time we came back.
In Past perfect tense, we use ‘had been’ with past participle.
Read carefully the passage given below and answer the questions (a), (b) and (c) that follow.[30 marks]
Explorers are a special kind. They embody the finest spirit in human nature, which is to seek out new challenges, discover new worlds and create new frontiers. May 29, 2003 marked the 50th Anniversary of one such rare achievement of the indomitable human spirit— the ascent of Mount Everest by Edmund Hillary and Tenzing Norgay.
The Himalayas have cast a spell on mankind since time immemorial. The legendary ancient poet Kalidasa calls them a measuring rod to gauge the world's pride.They seem to sit like a brooding elephant sprawled over several thousand kilometers. In a world increasingly ravaged by mindless violence, people seek refuge in the mountains for spirituality and transcendence. Others, for whom religion is not the motivation, come to seek adventure.
The tallest peak in the world is full of awe and mystery, and its legend precedes the heroic tales of the men of the Everest, who conquered it. In 1852, the then Surveyor General of India, Colonel Andrew Waugh, based onthe findings of the Trignometrical Society of India, named the highest found summit — 'Peak XV'. Later, he named it after his predecessor Colonel George Everest. For the Sherpas, it remains the mountain goddess, Sagarmatha-the forehead of the sky. The famous snow plume skimming off its top gives it a sense of unrivalled loftiness and almost immediately calls for reverence. Nature plays out terror and triumph intermittently on these mountains. Moments of glory can turn into events of tragedy in a few seconds; but one community seems to have mastered the mystery of the mountains — the Sherpas.
The Sherpas are a Tibetan tribe, who migrated to Nepal about 400 years ago. Their ability to brave the vagaries of high altitudes has helped them to prosper and they have come a long way from being just porters to being mountaineers. They are the unofficial gatekeepers of the summit and they are believed to understand its moods and expressions. They look for ominous signs such as a high soaring raven or a flag cloud and they offer special prayers to their deity to let the peak be benevolent.
Tenzing Norgay was a Sherpa also, who tried seven times to reach the summit but was successful only once. He was a simple, unlettered man yet spoke seven languages. He couldn't write but authored several books by dictation. On top of the Everest, he dug a hole in the snow and buried some sweets and a pencil stub his daughter had given him as offerings to the mountain. Several years later, his son Jamling Tenzing Norgay also achieved the same feat, followed by Tenzing's grandson Tashi Tenzing Sherpa, the first third generation man to scale the peak.
Tenzing's companion, Sir Edmund Hillary, was a beekeeper prior to his summit attempt. Several years hence, his son Peter Hillary, became the first son of a summiteer from the west to conquer the Everest.
(i) Given below are four words and phrases. Find the words which have a similar meaning in the passage: [4 marks]
(1) to be a symbol
(2) at irregular intervals
(3) appearing darkly menacing
(ii) For each of the words given below, write a sentence of at least ten words using the same word unchanged in form, but with a different meaning from that which it carries in the passage:
(b) Answer the following questions as briefly as possible in your own words:
(1) How are the Himalayas fascinating? [2 marks]
(2) What is the attitude of the Sherpas towards the mountains? [2 marks]
(3) Who are the Sherpas and how have they transformed themselves from being just porters to mountaineers? [2 marks]
(4) Do you think that Tenzing Norgay's story is an inspirational one? Why? [4 marks]
(c) In not more than 100 words, describe different views of people about the Everest.
Failure to keep within the word limit will be penalised. You will be required to:
(i) List your ideas clearly in point form. [6 marks]
(ii) In about 100 words, write your points in the form of a connected passage. [6 marks]Marks:30
(1) The spirit of a long-dead warrior haunted the house.
(2) The world leaders met in Hague for their annual economic summit.
(3) Saving your files to the cloud enables you to access them from anywhere in the world.
(4) He reached the peak of his soccer career in the late twenties.
i. The Himalayas are fascinating as it’s a measuring rod to gauge the world’s pride. It’s a spiritual solace for the peace lovers and challenge for the explorers. It sits like a brooding elephant sprawled over several thousand kilometers.
2. The Sherpas consider the Himalayas as the mountain goddess, Sagarmatha. They are the informal gatekeepers of the mountain.They can understand the moods and expressions of the mountain and offer prayers to make the peak kind and generous.
3. Sherpas are a tribe of Tibet migrated to Nepal. Their courage and bravery to face any unexpected change of high altitudes helped them to become mountaineers.
4. Tenzing Norgay's story is highly inspirational to all. He tried to reach the summit of Mt. Everest seven times but succeeded only once. He was an unlettered man but authored several books by dictation. His son and grandson also achieved the same feat of reaching the summit of Mount Everest.
- Everest - the tallest summit
- Fascinating and adventurous for explorers
- Kalidasa's comments
- Looks like an ominous giant
- Abode of Spirituality and transcendence
- Sherpasand their mountain god
- Respect and prayers
The Everest, the tallest summit in the world is shrouded in fear and mystery.For explorers, the Himalayas are always fascinating and adventurous. For Kalidasa, it’s a measuring rod to measure the pride of the world. The Himalayas look like anominous giant elephant with arms and legs stretched outover thousands of kilometers. The peace lovers search for refuge in the mountain for spirituality and transcendence. The Sherpas believe that it is the mountain goddess, Sagarmatha. They hope for ominous signs and offer special prayers to their god to let the peak be benevolent,and pay respect to it. (100words)
Answer sections (a), (b) and (c).
(a) In each of the following items, sentence A is complete, while sentence B is not. Complete sentence B, making it as similar as possible to sentence A.
Write sentence B in each case. [10 marks]
(0) (A) He always obeys his teachers.
(B) His teachers…..
Answer: (0) His teachers are always obeyed by him.
1. (A) He was so sleepy that he could not stay awake.
(B) He was too…..
2. (A) Akshay sympathized with me over my sad fate and that was some solace.
3. (A) As soon as the minister received word of the victory, he left for headquarters.
(B) No sooner……
4. (A) The Prime Minister said, “It gives me great joy to be here today.”
(B) The Prime Minister said that….
5. (A) To avoid punishment, you must confess that you did wrong.
6. (A) Bhaskar has wasted all his inheritance and ruined health by being a spendthrift.
(B) Not only….
7. (A) Some boys in the team are stronger than Gaffar.
(B) Gaffar is….
8. (A) Meena is the most talkative of all the girls in our club.
(B) No other…
9. (A) He saw that it was difficult, but struggled on.
10. (A) Nothing worthwhile can be achieved without toil.
(b). Fill in the blanks with the most appropriate word. (Don’t write the sentence) [5 marks]
1. Anil parted ___________ his team in good spirits.
2. He parted ___________ his money and became a hermit.
3. Sakina succeeded ___________mobilizing support for the cause.
4. Ramesh jumped _______ my offer of a job.
5. John has a partiality _______expensive suits.
6. I am not partial___________ coffee.
7. The school has put the event _______ until March.
8. There were no rooms in any of the hotels, so Sitadecided to put ___________ with her friend.
9. No one is listening to the radio. Please turn it ___________.
10. The missing girl turned ___________ in the night.
(c). Use the correct form of the word in the bracket. (Don’t write the passage) [5 marks]
When I _______ (0) the window (open), I _______ (1) (seen) a man stopping. He _______ (2) (spy) on us and I _______ (3) (Wonder) how much he _______ (4) (discovery). When I asked him what he _______ (5) (do) there, he said that he had dropped his key and _______ (6) (look) for it. Actually, he _______ (7) (make) notes of our conversation.By the time, I _______ (8) (decide) what to do, he _______ (9) (vanish) down the street. Strangely though, when I went out, I saw a small key _______ (10) (lie) just under the window sill.
Eg: (0) openedMarks:20
1. (B) He was too sleepy to stay awake.
2. (B)Akshay’s sympathy over my sad fate was some solace to me.
3. (B)No sooner had the minister received word of the victory than he left for headquarters.
4. (B)The Prime Minister said that he was greatly joyful to be there that day.
5. (B)Either confess you did wrong or face the punishment.
6. (B)Not only has Bhaskar wasted all his inheritance but also ruined his health by being a spendthrift.
7. (B)Gaffar is not the strongest boy in the team.
8. (B)No other girl in our club is as talkative as Meena.
9. (B)Although he saw it difficult, he struggled on.
10. (B)Can anything worthwhile be achieved without toil?
(2) was spying
(4) had discovered
(5) was doing
(6) was looking
(7) had been making
(9) had vanished
Imagine that you are the Principal of a school and one of your senior teachers has resigned.Write a testimonial (in approximately 300 words) Use the following clues:
Name -qualifications - academic achievements-field of specialization- period served in the school- achievements in the field- work experience-character-dealings with colleagues- attitude towards students- caliber and creativity in the field to carry out the work- extracurricular activities and recognition received- recommendationMarks:20
To Whomsoever It May Concern
This is to certify that Mr. Arora Raj, s/o Mr. Raj has worked in our institution for the last ten years, i.e., from April, 2002 to March 2012 as a senior English teacher. He carries an excellent educational back ground with Master’s Degrees in English and Psychology. He is an enthusiastic young man whose heart is permeated with all the mental and psychological traits, necessary for a teacher thathas endeared him amongst the other members of the staff of our Institution.
He has been an asset to our firm. Through his ceaseless endeavours and hard work, honesty and sincerity of purpose, he won over the hearts of the entire institution, especially the students’. He is a strict disciplinarian,but caring and compassionate and co-operative that made him well-liked among his students as well as the staffs. He is a good educationist and won the National Award for the best teacher last year.
We are sorry to relieve him from his duties, but,on account of certain unavoidable circumstances, we are pleased to recommend his case where teaching assignmentsare concerned. He will always prove his potential wherever he works.
We wish him all the success.
St. Jude’s Institution
Write a composition (in approximately 450-500 words) on any one of the following subjects:
(You are reminded that you will be rewarded for orderly and coherent presentation of material, use of appropriate style and general accuracy of spelling, punctuation and grammar.)
(a) You and your friends were on a picnic. You all decided to go sailing. Give a vivid account of an incident in which your boat capsizes in a violent storm, but you manage to escape.
(b) Describe the events that have been noteworthy in shaping your personality.
(c) Animals should not be used for research. Express your views for or against this statement.
(d) A journey.
(e) Write about two activities you have done, one of which gave you enormous delight and satisfaction, while the other was a cause of profound regret.
(f) Write a short story which exemplifies the truth of the statement, 'Self-help is the best help.'Marks:30
ALL IS WELL THAT ENDS WELL
In the summer vacation, the days are long and there is a lot to do. One can doze, read and enjoy a lot. One day, on such a summer vacation, my friends and I set off on our bicycles for a picnic to a beautiful picnic spot by the river side. We were very happy and sang songs as we bicycled along.
We unpacked our hampers after choosing a nice spot by the river. It was cool and pleasant in the shade of the tall trees. The view was breath taking. The distant mountains stood grandly. We were in a merry mood as we took a leisurely walk along the river.
Then, one of my friends had a bright idea- “Why don't we go for boating,” he suggested. All of us agreed at once. Only Raghav was hesitant but no one listened to him. We went ahead and hired a boat. The club owner gave us some instructions and life-jackets. But, we were too excited to pay attention.
Soon, we were on our way. We felt like conquerors as we sped away on the water with the cool breeze on our faces. It was truly invigorating. But soon, the weather took a turn for the worse. Dark clouds came floating in the sky. A storm began to blow and it started to rain. We lost control of the boat. All of us were terrified, although we could swim very well.
We began to shout for help. The water began to fill the boat and it was sinking. We put on the life-jackets just as the boat sank. But we were lucky. The owner of the boat had sent out a search party as soon as the weather grew bad. We were rescued just in the nick of time.
On the shore, many people had gathered. They cheered noisily, when we were pulled out of the water. We were wet and exhausted. They wrapped us in blankets and gave us some hot tea. We were shocked by the experience, but due to the foresight of the boat owner, a potential misfortune was averted.
Later in the day, we thanked him and returned home. We realized that we should not take such risks. We narrated the mishap to our parents, who were glad that we had such a miraculous escape. This terrible experience made us wiser and we promised that we would never again repeat the mistake. We all thanked God for his benevolence.
LIFE SHAPES OUR PERSONALITY
Today, I am 19 years of age and about to enter into a new stage in life. Soon, I will leave my teenage and step into the world of adults. But the last ten years have left a deep influence on my mind. I was just six when I entered the school. I was frightened and anxious. But my new teacher was loving and caring and smiled as she took me to my class. From that day on wards, my personality began to take shape and develop.
The little child was shaped into a cheerful teenager. I was taught various subjects that enriched my knowledge. I learnt dancing and singing. I took part in competitions and expressed my views at debates and declamations. I learnt discipline and the importance of rules and regulations.
I used to be a selective eater, who did not like to eat proper meals. My mother explained to me that in this world many people are dying due to lack of food. At the same time, the science teacher explained to us the importance of a balanced diet. Since then, I have never wasted food. I take meals at the proper time and avoid junk food. It has become a habit, a part of my personality development. Sometimes, even my friends laugh at me.
During my early years, I was introverted and shy. My parents encouraged me to take part in competitions and debates. They told me winning or losing did not matter but it was important to participate. This helped me to win many prizes and today, my speaking skills are appreciated by all.
My teachers and friends have always helped me. This has made me well-mannered and caring towards others. The importance of discipline has been instilled in us by the rules we followed in our school.
But, the most important thing that my school has given me is the values and the belief in God. The power of prayer works wonders in life. The most important thing in life is to be a good human being. We should always help others and be good citizens of our country.
These qualities and characteristics are now a part of my personality. They have become habits acquired over a period of time. I am proud to say that my personality has been moulded by my parents, teachers and friends. I will never let them down.
CRUELTY TO ANIMALS
"If a man aspires toward a righteous life, his first act of abstinence is from injury to animals." - Count Leo Tolstoy
I strongly support this statement. Animals should not be used for drug development or medical research. Man is destroying the earth for his selfish needs. He has intruded into the habitat of animals to build roads and cities.
Man has killed and hunted animals for food, medicines, fur and ivory. Many species of flora and fauna are becoming extinct due to the cruel greed of man. The great sage Valmiki cried out in pain and protest, ‘Ma nishada’ when he saw a hunter shooting one of the two birds.
Everywhere, animals are used for medical research and drug development. It is the most heinous crime perpetuated by man against these innocent and helpless victims. Animals are our friends. They serve us in numerous ways. Dogs are the most faithful of friends. Bees give us honey and cows give us milk. The list is endless. But how does man reward these true friends?
To test a particular drug, the disease is first developed in the animal by injecting it. The animal then suffers from the disease. It is then treated with drugs. Either way, the animal suffers a slow and painful death. It is worse when the test is unsuccessful that may lead to the painful end of the creature.
In laboratories all over the world, animals are being killed to save and protect the life of human beings. The poor dumb creatures cannot hit back. All over the world, many parks and wild-life sanctuaries are built to protect animals. Is this of any use? No, because we kill hundreds of animals for medical research and drug development. Even hunting is banned, but what would we call this mass destruction of animals?
From heart-transplants to cloning, scientists first experiment on animals. Only certain animals are used for this kind of testing. Will they not become vanished? Will it not lead to altering of the eco-system and eco-balance?
It is time to work towards spreading awareness of this mass scale killing of animals. It is a cruelty of the worst kind. If we want to save the earth, we must protect and preserve our flora and fauna. We must join hands and stop the use of animals for drug and medical research. Let us be truly civilized and not wild animals in the pretext of humans. We must use our intellect to build a better and more beautiful world stuffed with plants and animal lives. Let us be the protectors, not the killers.
There was enthusiasm all around. My cousin in Mumbai was getting married to an NRI. There were frantic preparations in my home. Shopping was done, tickets booked and luggage packed. I was the most excited as I would take a week’s leave from school.
The journey from Palghat to Mumbai was more than twenty hours, so my mother packed a lot of eatables. She packed fruits, biscuits and cold water. My dad got his camera to take photographs of the wedding and I packed my jigsaw puzzles. We had a great deal of luggage. A taxi was hired. Soon, we reached the railway station and a coolie carried the suit cases and the hold-all. My mother carried the fruit basket and my dad the water jar and his camera. I also helped as far as possible. The train was on the platform and soon, we boarded the train. There were many people all around. We found our seats and settled down. Next to us, was a family that was also going to Mumbai. We became friends instantly. During the journey, at every station, passengers boarded the train. The boy sitting next to me was Raghu who was also a student of class IX. We discussed our schools, our favourite subjects and our teachers.
My mother opened the food basket. We all enjoyed a tasty lunch followed by sweet mangoes. Time was flying! For some time after lunch, we all slept. The monotonous call of the vendors aroused us from the sleep. It was tea time. While the adults had tea, we children drank cold drinks with cake and biscuits. How hungry one is while travelling!My mother was well prepared indeed.
Suddenly the train came to a halt. There was no station in sight! Some passengers got down. We came to know that some prankster had pulled the chain. My father told me we should never do this unless there is an emergency. Some people just love to create problems; they are definitely not good citizens.
The train began to move again. The running trees and buildings always thrilled me.The slums were also something special to experience. We were just an hour away from Mumbai. It was time to exchange addresses and telephone numbers with our new friends. We had spent a very nice day in their company. We wanted to stay in contact.
At exactly 7 p.m., the train pulled into Mumbai railway station. My uncle and aunt had come there to receive us. Once again, a porter was called to help us with our luggage. The rush of the passengers made it difficult for us to move forward. Bidding farewell to our new friends, we managed to come out and reached home in my uncle’s car. It was a really thrilling experience for me.
My Joy and my Regret
Action speaks louder than words. For some days in the past, I was posted as a postmaster in a distant village. There was no higher secondary school, except a high school. The school was a government school, so one could imagine how much labour the teachers were used to. In fact, they came marked their presence, asked the boys to bring milk, prepare tea, eat their lunch and went back to their houses. The headmaster used to come once in a week just to mark his presence. Of course, there were two-three teachers who showed a little respect to their duties.
The village postman had a large family. His son was studying in high school. He needed coaching in mathematics. Since I was living nearby, I asked the postman to send his son to me. I was totally free in the evening, so, I taught him not only mathematics but virtually all the subjects — Science, Social Studies, English and even Physical Education. He worked hard and stood first in the district, in his board examination. The Welfare Society adopted him and he was sent to the city for further education. I was proud of myself that I could influence the future of a person. I understood if all of us are determined to adopt a person and help him, no one will be uneducated or illiterate in our country.
But, one act of mine always goes on perforating my soul. It is a burden on my soul and always makes me sad whenever I recollect it. I was much fond of my new car that was a gift to me by my father for my excellence in my competitive examination. Daily, I kept it very neat and clean and never lent it to anyone as it always cherished the beautiful memory of my father. One night, when it was raining heavily, the head master of the school came to my house. He knocked the door and I opened it. He said his daughter was unwell and so he wanted to bring a doctor from the city. He requested me to lend him my car. I could not dare to say him 'no', so I made an excuse that since it had no petrol, I could not give him the car. The man requested again and again and also assured me that he would get it filled with petrol the next day. But, I flatly refused. The next day, the postman told me that the headmaster’s daughter died in the night. It was a great shock to me. But, what could be done now. It was too late. My conscience was haunted by my cruelty. I did not dare to look into the eyes of the headmaster as I held myself responsible for his daughter's death.
From that day on wards, I decided that I would give my vehicle to anyone in emergency. If I had given my car, perhaps, the headmaster’s daughter might have been saved. I apologized to him for my unkindness. Though the father of the girl told me that it was fate that he should remain childless, yet I could not forgive myself. The death of the girl is a cause of deep regret for me. Sometimes, when I remember the case of the postman's son, I feel happy and get satisfaction. But, when I remember the daughter of the headmaster, I am filled with regret and feel that I am the cruelest man in this world. So, I have decided not to say 'no' to anyone. If I can do something good, let me do it because a good deed always gives happiness for a long time. But let us avoid doing anything which may harm, trouble or cause destruction to others.
"Self Help is The Best Help"
It is said, "God helps those who help themselves." This world is self-seeking. People are self-centered. Life is running very fast. No one has time to help the other as he himself is not being helped by anyone else, so, why he should help others! The best help is always from within and not from without.
We have heard the story of 'Eklavya, a boy of the ‘Gond’ tribe. He went to the great Guru Dronacharya to learn the skill of archery. But Dronacharya said that since he was a boy from ‘Gond’ tribe, he could not accept him as a disciple, as he taught only princes. The boy said Dronacharya might not accept him as a disciple or but he had accepted him as his Guru. After saying so, the boy came to his hut. There, he made an idol of Dronacharya and started practicing archery. He was using the hit and trial method as there was no one to mend his mistakes. But, failures are stepping stones to success, and mistakes are teachers. The young man went on practicing for a long period of time. During this period, he learnt how to shoot seven arrows together. Thus, he learnt by himself, as wherever he made a mistake, he analyzed it and found out where he had taken a wrong step. Next time, he was conscious not to repeat the same mistake. Thus, with fortitude, patience, regularity and hard work, he became a great archer.
One day, Dronacharya and his best disciple Arjun, who was also a great archer, were going through a forest. They had a dog following them. The dog ran in one direction and then began to bark. But all of a sudden, the barking stopped. Dronacharya and Arjun became alert. Why had the dog had stopped barking? They wondered.
They called to the dog and the dog came but his mouth was shut by seven arrows. Arjun was surprised to see it. He was thinking that he was the greatest archer of the world. He could shoot five arrows at a time. But, here was someone else who could shoot seven arrows at a time! He along with his teacher Dronacharya proceeded further. He saw a youth with well built body wearing a loin cloth with bow and arrows. Arjun asked him whether it was he who had closed his dog's mouth with seven arrows. The youth said it was he. In the meanwhile Dronacharya came on the scene. As soon as the ‘Gond’ youth saw Dronacharya, he fell at his feet and tears began to flow from his eyes. Arjun doubted his master. The boy addressed Dronacharya as Guru and called himself his disciple. He took Dronacharya to his hut and showed him his idol made of 'clay. Dronacharya found that the boy had been worshipping his image with flowers and coconut offerings and some incense.
The young boy asked Dronacharya what he could do for his Guru. Dronacharya asked him about his guru. The youth laughed and said that he was the disciple of Dronacharya and no one could teach him thus other than his Guru. Dronacharya was confused as he had not given the youth even a single lesson on archery. Then the boy explained that he used to practise before the clay image of Dronacharya and asked him again and again whether he was going right. He felt in his heart that his Guru was with him. Dronacharya asked him whether he had learnt the art of archery by himself. The boy agreed. The Guru patted the boy and praised him and said to both, "Self help is the best help."