Note Making

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  • Q1

    Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow it.

    Every year on 12th June, the world community celebrates Anti-Child Labour Day. But the number of working children seems to be increasing. According to the International Labour Organisation (ILO), there are approximately 246 million children between the age of 6 and 15 working as labourers. In a few Asian countries, the government itself in its most recent account estimates that 12.6 million children under the age of 14 work in various occupations including hazardous occupations.

    Child workers are engaged primarily in agriculture and allied activities in rural areas and in a variety of industries and informal sector activities in the urban areas.

    Children today often labour under extremely hazardous conditions in factories and mines, handling poisonous chemicals, inhaling toxic fumes, moving excessive weights. Children employed in glass industries are compelled to remove molten glass from the furnaces.

    Even though Asian countries have banned children under- 14 from working as domestic servants, thousands of children are estimated to be working as domestic servants and in tea shops, restaurants and hotels.

    Child labourers are usually overworked, underfed and underpaid. The main reason for increase in child labourers is poverty. The other reasons can be population explosion, uneducated parents and unemployment etc. Employers prefer child labourers because they are cheap and easy to exploit.

    If child labour is to be eradicated, the government and agencies and those responsible for enforcement need to start doing their jobs. Child labour in hazardous industry needs to be banned. The message needs to reach to all the employers of child labour that this situation just cannot continue. Parents also should not be allowed to justify sending their children to work in such industries on the grounds of poverty. A massive countrywide campaign needs to be launched stating clearly the disciplinary action which would be taken if children were found to be employed. We have to decide whether we are going to take up the problem head-on and fight it anyway we can or leave it to the adults who might not be there when things go out of hand.
    i. On the basis of your reading of the passage makes note on it. Use a suitable format. Supply an appropriate title.
    ii. Write a summary of the passage.

    Marks:10
    Answer:

    Title: Child Labour

    Notes:

    1. Statistics of child labour

    1.1. 246 million children in world working as labourers

    1.2. 12.6 million children in Asian countries

    2. Areas where children are employed

    2.1. Agriculture

    2.2. Domestic work

    2.3. Factories & mines

    2.4. Industries

    2.5. Restaurants and hotels

    3. Reasons for increase in child labourers

    3.1. Poverty

    3.2. Population explosion

    3.3. Uneducated parents

    3.4. Cheap and easy to exploit

    4. Remedies

    4.1. Ban on industries employing children

    4.2. Massive campaign to be launched

    4.3. Disciplinary action to be taken against
    employers

    Summary: The number of child labourers seems to be increasing every year. There are 246 million in world and 12.6 million in Asian countries, working as labourers. Child workers are engaged in agricultural activities, factories, mines and as domestic workers. Poverty, illiteracy and increase in population are the main causes of increase in child labour. A campaign need to be launched against the employers. The government also needs to take strict action to remove child labour.

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  • Q2

    Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions that follow it.
    The first Commonwealth Games were held in 1930 in Hamilton, Canada where 11 countries sent 400 athletes to take part in 6 sports and 59 events. Bobby Robinson, who was a major influence within athletics in Canada at the time, finally implemented the event that had been talked about amongst Commonwealth nations for over thirty years with the city of Hamilton providing $30,000 to help cover traveling costs of the participating nations.

    Since then, the games have been conducted every four years except for 1942 and 1946 due to the Second World War and have seen many changes. From 1930 to 1950 the games were known as the British Empire Games, from 1954 until 1966 the British Empire and Commonwealth Games and from 1970 to 1974 they took on the title of British Commonwealth Games. It was the 1978 Games in Edmonton that saw this unique, multi sports event change its name to the Commonwealth Games.

    Commonwealth Games also known as “Friendly Games” for the fact that all athletes and officials can converse with each other in English which creates a friendly atmosphere. They originally started as a festival where different nations participated in the event. They were introduced to develop better understanding and goodwill among nations.

    The Commonwealth tradition has been carrying forward a magnificent heritage of co-operation, humanity and unity. The Commonwealth is a unique family of developed and developing nations, a voluntary association of independent sovereign states spread over every continent and ocean.

    Presently there are 53 Commonwealth of Nations members. Some of the sports included in Commonwealth games are boxing, weightlifting, shooting, swimming, gymnastics, badminton, hockey, tennis, water polo and cycling etc.

    With the passing of time, many new nations and sports have been included in the Commonwealth Games.

    i.
    On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it. Supply a suitable title.
    ii. Write a summary of the passage in about 80 words.

    Marks:10
    Answer:

    Title: The Commonwealth Games

    Notes:

    1. History of Commonwealth Games

    1.1. First held in 1930 in Hamilton, Canada

    1.2. 11 countries, 40 athletes, 6 sports

    1.3. Held every four years

    1.4. Earlier known as British Empire Games

    1.5. Originally started as a festival

    2. Aim of Commonwealth Games

    2.1. Develop among nations

    2.1.1. Understanding

    2.1.2. Goodwill

    2.1.3. Co-operation

    2.1.4. Humanity and unity

    3. Some of the sports includes:

    3.1. Boxing

    3.2. Weightlifting

    3.3. Gymnastics

    3.4. Swimming

    Summary: The Commonwealth Games are held every four years. They were first held in 1930 in Hamilton, Canada. Earlier they were called British Games but from 1978 they came to be known as the Commonwealth Games. They initially started as a festival where different countries participated in the games. They were developed to introduce understanding and goodwill among nations. The Commonwealth is an association of independent sovereign states who aim to spread humanity, unity and co-operation.

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  • Q3

    Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions that follow it.
    Swine flu is a kind of respiratory disease which is common in pigs. Most commonly, swine flu is of the H1N1 influenza type. .The H1N1 virus is a combination of different viruses. It’s mixture of the swine flu, the bird flue and the kind of flu common during the winter months seen among the people in north America. As it is a combination of different flu viruses, the H1N1 flu is difficult to treat.
    One of the common symptoms of a swine disease is high fever. A victim will suffer from very high fever. Usually, young children found to be the victims of swine flu tend to report high fevers than the young adults.
    Another symptom of swine flu is coughing. The H1N1 flu virus causes many other cases of the upper respiratory problems. Aching, sore muscles and fatigue are some of the other symptoms of this illness. Some of the victims of swine flu may have stomach upset and associated problems like vomiting, diarrhea and nausea.
    Medical facts reveal that, between 1918 and 1919 a similar kind of disease had killed nearly 40 million people. Due to the lack of modern medical system, the spread of disease couldn’t be prevented.
    With the advent of modern technology and general awareness, the H1N1 virus can be best taken care of. Today there is a huge variety of medications present in the market to treat the swine flu victims. If caught in the initial stages, most of the cases can be treated properly with the patient having to experience the minimum discomfort.
    Swine flu is now assuming alarming proportions. Therefore, it is extremely important to take proper precautions against this disease which has already claimed many lives.
    Swine flu precautions do not involve too much of effort. One just has to be careful and follow some simple guidelines. Those with flu symptoms should remain at home so that others are not infected. Frequent hand washing is recommended to check the spread of the disease. Those affected by the H1N1 virus should wash their hands regularly with soap and water. If the situation is alarming, they must wear a surgical mask.
    i. On the basis of your reading of the passage make notes on it. Supply an appropriate title.
    ii. Write a summary of the passage in about 80 words.

    Marks:10
    Answer:

    Title: Swine Flu

    Notes:

    1. What is Swine flu?

    1.1. Respiratory disease common in pigs

    1.2. Common during winter months

    1.3. H1N1 virus – combination of different viruses

    2. Symptoms of swine flu

    2.1. High fever

    2.2. Coughing

    2.3. Aching

    2.4. Nausea, vomiting and diarrhea

    3. Precautions

    3.1. Remain at home if infected

    3.2. Wash hands frequently

    3.3. Wear a surgical mask

    Summary: Swine flu is a respiratory disease common in pigs. It is caused by H1N1 influenza virus which is a combination of different viruses. The common symptoms of swine flu are high fever, coughing, aching and nausea etc. Swine flu can be treated in the initial stage with modern technology and medications. It is important to take proper precautions such as staying at home if infected, washing hands frequently, wearing a surgical mask.

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  • Q4

    Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions that follow it.
    All of us do some kind of work to ward off starvation or to gain adequate material wealth with a view to maintaining that standard of living which our physical and intellectual powers have helped us to reach. But there is another kind of work which is completely detached from the arduous process of our livelihood and which is undertaken for the sake of amusement or the direction of our energy in some new and positive channels of refined tastes. This pleasant activity combining work with enjoyment is known as hobby. In our relaxed and vacant hours it allows our faculties to perform their natural functions and to exhibit their instinctive greatness.
    Hobbies are the most rewarding pastime harbouring personal interest and delight. Hobbies relax the mind and bring out the hidden talents within a person.
    To select a hobby is not an easy task. Some hobbies demand a little guidance from experienced persons. Our sudden attachment to them without the help of this preliminary knowledge may result in wasting of our resources of time and money, and in the end compel us to abandon them. Some hobbies are rather expensive, and therefore beyond the means of ordinary people who can not afford to spend large sums of money on them. Not a few are incompatible with our temperament and taste. We must not, therefore, allow certain hobbies to blind us to their reality, however appealing they may appear to us.
    i. On the basis of your reading of the passage make notes on it. Supply a suitable title.
    ii. Write a summary of the passage in about 80 words.

    Marks:10
    Answer:

    Title: Cultivating a hobby

    Notes:

    1. What is a hobby?

    1.1. Work for the sake of amusement

    1.2. Direction of energy in new positive channels

    2. Advantages of a hobby

    2.1. Relaxes the mind

    2.2. Brings out hidden talents

    2.3. Harbours personal interest and delight

    3. Selection of hobbies – carefully

    3.1. Wastage of time and money

    3.2. Incompatible with temperament

    Summary: A hobby is a work done for amusement or directing the energy in some new and positive channels. Hobbies are helpful in relaxing the mind and bringing out the hidden talents. Hobbies should be selected after taking guidance from experienced persons. Cultivating hobby without having proper knowledge may result in wastage of time and money. Hobbies which are not well-suited to our temperament should be discarded.

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  • Q5

    Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions that follow it.
    Modern gadgets have changed the face of the world. Today there isn't a single field where machines are not used. The market is flooded with wonderful gadgets. It is indeed a fact that as a result of the invention of modern gadgets, the tone and temper of life has changed beyond recognition. The latest gadgets include laptops, smart phones, iPods, camcorders, digital cameras etc.
    Modern gadgets have made communication easier. Today we can communicate with a person sitting at the other end of the world within seconds by using our cell phone, personal notebook or just by sending an e-mail.
    Earlier, everything was done manually. Today, modern technology has made our life much easier and more comfortable. The innovative gadgets help us save our time and energy.
    Modern gadgets have also greatly contributed to our entertainment as compact discs, digital video discs, mp3 players etc. are now no longer considered as luxury items but are fast becoming a necessity.
    In the future, it will be difficult to imagine life without these gadgets. However, it is not advisable to be overly dependent on them. If we use the modern gadgets excessively, we will become their slave.

    i. On the basis of your reading of the passage make notes on it. Supply a suitable title.
    ii. Write a summary of the passage in about 80 words.

    Marks:10
    Answer:

    Title: Uses of modern gadgets

    Notes:

    1. Importance of modern gadgets

    1.1. Used in every field

    1.2. Changed the lifestyle

    2. Field of communication

    2.1. Convenient to contact person far away

    3. Uses in daily life

    3.1. Made life easier and comfortable

    3.2. Save time and energy

    4. Overuse of modern gadgets can make us

    4.1. Slaves

    4.2. Dependent

    Summary: The invention of modern gadgets has brought a change in our lifestyle. They are used in every field. They have made the communication much easier. They have made our life comfortable and are also helpful in saving time and energy. They are rapidly becoming a necessity. It will be difficult to imagine life without these gadgets. The excessive use of modern gadgets can make us a slave. Therefore, over dependence on modern gadgets should be avoided.

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