Khilafat and Non-Cooperation Movement

  • Rowlatt Act of 1919 was implemented on the recommendations of   Sydney Rowlatt, named as the ‘Black Bill’.
  • Muhammad Ali Jinnah and Gandhi ji opposed the bill.
  • The Moderate leaders like Surendranath Banerjee, Tej Bahadur Sapru, Srinivas Sastri, and Annie Besant opposed Gandhi ji’s Satyagraha.
  • Jallianwala Bagh Massacre was executed by General Dyer.
  • Muslims started the Khilafat movement for the restoration of Caliphate, led by the Ali brothers, Maulana Muhammad Ali, Maulana Shaukat Ali.
  • Turkey was dismantled by the Treaty of Sevres.
  • Kamal Pasha came to power and abolished the title of caliphate, led to the end of Khilafat movement in India.
  • Indians helped the British in the First World War (WWI), but the Montague-Chelmsford Act of 1919 disappointed the Indians on the point of self-government.
  • Economic causes and international events like Communist Revolution of Russia created a new hope.
  • At Calcutta session and Nagpur session, Congress party transformed to a real mass based party.
  • The Congress campaigned for Non-Cooperation and the boycott process was started.
  • In first phase emphasis was given on the boycott of schools, colleges and law courts.
  • In second phase emphasis was given on strengthening the Congress where the Tilak Swaraj fund was started
  • The Non-cooperation movement was withdrawn due to Chauri Chaura incident.
  • Economic boycott gave a new dimension to the Movement. Gandhi ji also started movements against social issues like caste barriers and untouchability etc.


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