Swadeshi Movement

  • In 1894, there was change of guard in England with the defeat of the Liberal party in the election.
  • Political changes in England undermined the previous concessions and the emergence of nationalism in India.
  • This was a period of heightened-feeling of Indian Nationalism with the formation of the Indian National Congress.
  • In order to suppress the revolutionary trend in Indian nationalism, Lord Curzon was appointed as Viceroy in 1899.
  • Curzon’s policies included Calcutta Corporation Act (1899), Universities Act (1904), Police and Military Reforms and Preservation of Archaeological objects.
  • The Partition of Bengal (1905) was Curzon’s another step to curb the spread of radical nationalism in India, especially in Bengal. Curzon justified the partition citing the administrative cause or convenience.
  • Nationalism in Bengal was the real reason behind the partition of Bengal.
  • Curzon wanted to make Dacca, a Muslim dominant city in East Bengal province as a parallel political centre.
  • Religious issue was also one of the causes for the partition of Bengal.
  • The Swadeshi movement could not unify the divided Bengal.
  • The importance of Swadeshi movement in the history of the freedom movement of India can in no way be denied.
  • The Swadeshi movement was a united movement of the Indians.
  • The manner in which the movement integrated the people of India had never been seen before.
  • The Split in Surat Congress in 1907 greatly weakened the movement from inside.
  • The Movement was mainly confined to the middle class people.


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