Protest Movement against Colonial Rule

  • There was a wide demand of indigo in Europe.
  • The British oppressed indigo plantation in Bengal and Bihar for cultivating indigo instead of food crops.
  • Peasants were made to sign contracts and sell their indigo at lowest possible rates.
  • The petitions sent by peasants were ignored by the Company’s government.
  • Digambar and Vishnu Charan Biswas of Nadia district gave leadership to the peasants.
  • Harish Chandra Mukerjee, Editor and journalist of Hindu Patriot, published many facts regarding the exploitation of peasants by the officials.
  • Dinabandhu Mitra’s “Nil Darpan” gave expressions of tyranny and torture by the planters.
  • The growing agitations drew the attention of the Government.
  • Indigo Commission was appointed to record complaints of affected peasants and issued proclamation against forced cultivation of indigo.
  • The Ryotwari Settlement became an oppressive system in the Deccan.
  • Peasants revolted against the mahajans or money lenders.
  • Cotton was the main crop of the region.
  • The Kunbi peasants used to borrow money from landlords to invest in cotton cultivation.
  • The fall in prices of cotton in 1870 affected the peasants.
  • The money lenders confiscated the leased lands of the peasants.
  • Poona and Ahmednagar saw the first social boycott of money lenders.
  • Soon a violent revolt broke out under the leadership of Kenglia.
  • Later authorities passed the Deccan land Act to protect the interests of peasants.
  • In Bombay region, the Ramosi tribal peasants also revolted against the zamindars and mahajans while the Koya rebellion occurred during the 1870-80 in eastern Godavari area.
  • Mundas lived in and around Hazaribagh and Ranchi districts of Jharkhand.
  • Their land system is known as Khunt or collective ownership of land.
  • The expansion of British land revenue system was not welcomed by the Mundas as tax rates were high.
  • They sometimes practiced Jhum cultivation.
  • Mundas were exploited by the moneylenders too.
  • In 1879, the Mundas claimed the entire Chotanagpur.
  • The colonial government and like-minded locals tried to supress the movement.
  • The Mundas turned against the Europeans, missionaries, money lenders, etc.  
  • Birsa Munda led the movement as he felt deserted by the missionaries.
  • In 1895, he was arrested and sent to prison.
  • After his release, he started a revolt against the oppressors of Mundas.
  • Birsa Munda was again arrested and died in custody.
  • Later, British government reintroduced the traditional Khunt-Kati system.

 

To Access the full content, Please Purchase