Rise of Fascism and Militarism: Italy and Japan

  • Mussolini was originator of Fascism.
  • Growth of Fascism started after National Fascist Party was formed in 1921 by Benito Mussolini.
  • In 1921 elections, no party won majority.
  • So Mussolini marched to Rome to seize government.
  • Italian ruler Victor Emmanuel III invited Mussolini to form government.
  • Principles of Fascism are centered on the state, regarded as all powerful which cannot be challenged.
  • Fascism in Italy arose due to massive disappointment after the War, as Italians felt humiliated by Paris Peace Conference, where Allied Powers did not fulfil their promises to Italy.
  • Economic effect of the War included demobilisation of army, restrictions in international trade, closure of factories and refusal of banks to lend loans, all affecting Italian economy.
  • Lack of stable government In Italy, led to growing contempt for Parliament.
  • Italy also witnessed a wave of strikes.
  • Failure of Democratic government to solve post-war problems and in establishing stability was another factor.
  • Resistance Movement activities of Socialists, Communists and other groups goaded unrest in Italy.
  • Under Rule of Mussolini, Italian domestic and economic policy ensured partnership between labour and capital.
  • Under Mussolini’s Corporate State, major industries were represented as corporations, who with fascist ministers, made rules and regulations.
  • Agricultural reforms of Mussolini centered on making Italy self-sufficient.
  • First Fascist policy was to make state supreme and destroy all opposition.
  • Fascists established strong control over education.
  • Mussolini adopted an aggressive foreign policy, which included Italian conquest of Abyssinia in 1935-36.
  • One achievement of Fascism was Lateran Treaty of 1929, under which Pope and Italian government recognized each other’s legitimacy.
  • Westernisation of Japan started after foreign powers forced Japan to conclude unequal treaties with them, Japan retaliated by adopting western methods, centralised government, progressive policies and aggressive foreign policy.
  • It experienced rise of militarists by 1830s.
  • Under their control, Japan experienced great economic growth during the First World War.
  • Great Depression of 1929 had a highly negative impact upon Japanese economy.
  • Rise of fascism started among most of the soldiers and officers in Japanese army.
  • They justified the usage of military power to counter the problem.
  • Annexation of Manchuria became a worthy target of aggression.
  • Japan attacked Manchuria in 1931, and overthrew the dominance of the Chinese.
  • Foreign Reaction started after China lodged a complaint in the League of Nations.
  • League appointed the Lytton Commission.
  • It advised that Manchuria should become an autonomous province under Chinese suzerainty.
  • Japan disagreed with this decision and withdrew its membership from the League of Nations.
  • New Japanese foreign policy started when in 1934; Japan closed all doors of China to European powers, which came to be known as Japan’s Monroe Doctrine.
  • Japan then entered into the Anti-Comintern Pact with Italy and Germany, thus forming the Rome-Berlin-Tokyo Axis.
  • In 1941, Japan bombed an American naval base known as Pearl Harbour, forcing USA to enter the Second World War.

 

To Access the full content, Please Purchase